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Table 2 Study population characteristics and association between enrolment in NHIF and explanatory variables

From: Determinants for participation in a public health insurance program among residents of urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional survey

   Enrolled in NHIF
   Yes No  
Variables Total Number N (%) N (%) p-values
Employment sector     
   Formal employment 3,007 1,434 (47.69) 1,573 (52.31) ***
   Informal employment 6,000 180 (3.00) 2,113 (97.00)  
Participates in National Social Security Fund (NSSF)     
   Yes 1,982 1,608 (81.13) 374 (18.87) ***
   No 14,358 137 (0.95) 14,221 (99.05)  
Participates in savings and credit cooperative organizations (SACCOs)     
   Yes 517 465 (89.94) 52 (10.06) ***
   No 15,821 1,280 (8.09) 14,541 (91.91)  
Participates in community-based savings groups     
   Yes 2,328 493 (21.18) 1,835 (78.82) ***
   No 14,012 1,251 (8.93) 12,761 (91.07)  
Income in the last one month     
   Poor 2,510 60 (2.39) 2,450 (97.61) ***
   Non-poor 5,827 1,408 (24.16) 4,419(75.84)  
   Don't know/missing 667 145 (21.74) 522 (78.26)  
Gender     
   Male 8,699 1,413 (16.24) 7,286 (83.76) ***
   Female 7,643 332 (4.34) 7,311 (95.66)  
Marital status     
   Currently in union 7,399 1,190 (16.08) 6,209 (83.92) ***
   Formerly in union 907 42 (4.63) 865 (95.37)  
   Never in union 4,989 171 (3.43) 4,818 (96.57)  
Age of respondents     
   Less than 24 years 3,992 45 (1.13) 3,947 (98.87) ***
   24-29 years 3,096 177 (5.72) 2,919 (94.28)  
   30-39 years 4,213 638 (15.14) 3,575 (84.86)  
   40-49 years 2,174 437 (20.10) 1,737 (79.90)  
   50+ years 2,867 448 (15.63) 2,419 (84.37)  
Education     
   Never attended school 1,123 33 (2.94) 1,090 (97.06) ***
   Primary 10,540 801 (7.60) 9,739 (92.40)  
   Secondary/higher 4,327 871 (20.13) 3,456 (79.87)  
Slum residence     
   Korogocho 7,741 207 (2.67) 7,534 (97.33) ***
   Viwandani 8,601 1,538 (17.88) 7,063 (82.12)  
Ethnicity     
   Kikuyu 5,535 347 (6.27) 5,188 (93.73) ***
   Luhya 2,210 252 (11.40) 1,958 (88.60)  
   Luo 2,394 142 (5.93) 2,252 (94.07)  
   Kamba 3,871 756 (19.53) 3,115 (80.47)  
   Other 2,302 247 (10.73) 2,055 (89.27)  
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001; X 2 used to test the association between enrolment in the NHIF and explanatory variables
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