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Table 2 Individual variables conditional logistic regression with the child entering public care

From: Health service use in families where children enter public care: a nested case control study using the General Practice Research Database

Exposure of interest Cases
n = 147
Controls
n = 538
Odds Ratio (95% Confidence interval) P value
Maternal mental illness 75 (51%) 132 (25%) 3.42 (2.29-5.11) < 0.001
Maternal depression 52 (35%) 92 (17%) 2.76 (1.81-4.21) < 0.001
Maternal referral to psychiatry 43 (28%) 58 (11%) 3.71 (2.29-6.01) < 0.001
Maternal prescription of anxiolytic 29 (20%) 24 (4%) 5.49 (3.00-10.1) < 0.001
Maternal psychosis 12 (8%) 6 (1%) 7.41 (2.78-19.8) < 0.001
Concern about maternal psychological health 31 (21%) 55 (10%) 2.43 (1.46-4.04) 0.001
Maternal drug misuse 7 (5%) 1 (0.2%) 27.1 (3.33-220) 0.002
Maternal over dose referral 4 (3%) 0 (0%) - 0.002*
Maternal alcohol misuse 6 (4%) 1 (0.2%) 23.1 (2.78-192) 0.004
Maternal visit to A + E 17 (12%) 29 (5%) 2.39 (1.27-4.52) 0.007
Maternal smoking 33 (22%) 76 (14%) 1.88 (1.17-3.03) 0.009
Maternal admission to hospital 6 (4%) 4 (0.7%) 6.42 (1.59-25.9) 0.009
Relationship issues in maternal file 5 (3%) 4 (0.7%) 4.69 (1.26-17.5) 0.021
Maternal contraception 41 (28%) 198 (37%) 0.64 (0.43-0.97) 0.035
Child mental illness 34 (23%) 43 (8%) 3.87 (2.29-6.53) < 0.001
Child behavioural issues 19 (13%) 18 (3%) 4.80 (2.35-9.82) < 0.001
Child maltreatment 20 (14%) 0 (0%) - < 0.001*
Child admission to hospital 12 (8%) 12 (2%) 3.83 (1.68-8.72) 0.001
Child referral to A + E 16 (11%) 25 (5%) 2.74 (1.37-5.52) 0.005
Any non attendance at primary or secondary care 57 (39%) 101 (19%) 2.95 (1.93-4.52) < 0.001
Any social service input 31 (21%) 4 (0.6%) 55.8 (13.3-233) < 0.001
Maternal age 15-19 years old 13 (9%) 28 (5%) 2.63 (1.24-5.59) 0.012
Maternal age 20-24 years old 41 (28%) 117 (22%) 2.34 (1.39-3.94) 0.001
Maternal age 25-29 years old 30 (20%) 197 (37%) 1.00 -
Maternal age 30-34 years old 30 (20%) 142 (26%) 1.35 (0.78-2.34) 0.282
Maternal age 35-39 years old 15 (10%) 39 (7%) 2.74 (1.33-5.67) 0.007
Maternal age 40-44 years old 14 (10%) 13 (2%) 6.97 (2.92-16.6) < 0.001
Maternal age 45-49 years old 4 (3%) 2 (0.4%) 18.8 (1.64-158) 0.017
SES quintile 1 15 (10%) 131 (23%) 1.00  
SES quintile 2 18 (12%) 104 (19%) 1.71 (0.80-3.67) 0.163
SES quintile 3 32 (22%) 94 (17%) 3.38 (1.69-6.77) 0.001
SES quintile 4 41 (28%) 119 (22%) 3.92 (1.98-7.73) < 0.001
SES quintile 5 41 (28%) 90 (17%) 6.51 (3.09-13.7) < 0.001
Maternal smoking cessation 3 (2%) 8 (1%) 1.29 (0.34-4.89) 0.71
Maternal sexually transmitted infection 1 (0.7%) 19 (4%) 0.19 (0.03-1.47) 0.11
Maternal termination of pregnancy 2 (1%) 6 (1%) 1.28 (0.26-6.37) 0.760
Maternal referral to Orthopaedics 17 (11%) 38 (7%) 1.74 (0.95-3.20) 0.075
Sentinel conditions for maternal trauma 5 (3%) 14 (3%) 1.37 (0.49-3.88) 0.55
Domestic abuse 7 (5%) 18 (3%) 1.53 (0.62-3.75) 0.354
Maternal learning difficulties 1 (0.7%) 0 (0%) - 0.2*
Maternal bipolar disorder 2 (1%) 1 (0.2%) 8.00 (0.73-88.2) 0.09
Sentinel conditions for maternal drug misuse 1 (0.7%) 1 (0.2%) 4.00 (0.25-64.0) 0.33
Sentinel conditions for alcohol misuse 1 (0.7%) 0 (0%) - 0.2*
Child with scabies 0 (0%) 4 (0.7%) - 0.409*
Child with head lice 9 (6%) 28 (5%) 1.35 (0.58-3.11) 0.485
Child health surveillance codes 13 (9%) 55 (10%) 0.79 (0.33-1.92) 0.604
Ethnicity in maternal file 0 (0%) 5 (1%) - 0.328*
Child developmental delay 4 (3%) 12 (2%) 1.29 (0.39-4.21) 0.678
Child immunisation data incomplete 1 (0.7%) 2 (0.4%) 2.45 (0.14-42.6) 0.539
Immunisation refused 2 (1%) 1 (0.2%) 7.29 (0.66-80.8) 0.105
Child referrals to orthopaedics 1 (0.7%) 7 (1%) 0.52 (0.06-4.31) 0.551
Other child referrals to secondary care 18 (12%) 54 (10%) 1.27 (0.70-2.29) 0.428
Sentinel conditions for child trauma 3 (2%) 8 (1%) 1.26 (0.33-4.77) 0.738
Sentinel conditions for child head injury 2 (1%) 11 (2%) 0.68 (0.15-3.16) 0.627
Sentinel codes for child burn 3 (2%) 2 (0.4%) 5.36 (0.89-32.2) 0.067
Child smoking 2 (1%) 4 (0.7%) 2.93 (0.35-10.4) 0.458
Child contraception 4 (3%) 7 (1%) 2.93 (0.62-13.9) 0.174
Child pregnancy 2 (1%) 4 (0.7%) 4.45 (0.32-62.7) 0.269
Relationship issues in child file 1 (0.7%) 1 (0.2%) 4.00 (0.25-64.0) 0.333
Antidepressant prescribed to child 3 (2%) 3 (0.6%) 5.04 (0.82-31.0) 0.081
Hypnotic prescribed to child 8 (5%) 19 (4%) 1.63 (0.68-3.91) 0.271
Child ADHD treatment 3 (2%) 3 (0.6%) 3.40 (0.68-17.1) 0.137
Child alcohol concern 1 (0.7%) 2 (0.4%) 2.00 (0.18-22.1) 0.571
Child drug misuse 1 (0.7%) 0 (0%) - 0.2*
Health Visitor involvement 4 (3%) 5 (1%) 8.64 (0.90-83.0) 0.062
Any nursing input 4 (3%) 8 (1%) 2.36 (0.56-10.0) 0.243
Financial issues 3 (2%) 5(1%) 2.23 (0.53-9.35) 0.273
  1. The variables with no odds ratio have a zero score on one of the 2 by 2 table fields and cannot be computed by this method, we assigned a p value for these variables using an exact form of McNemar's Test