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Table 1 Evolution of HIV health services in Vietnam

From: A new analytical framework of 'continuum of prevention and care' to maximize HIV case detection and retention in care in Vietnam

Year Evolution
Early 1990s Small-scale responses initiated at the local level such as local government led needle and syringe programs and peer support activities.
Mid 1990s The Ministry of Health initiated a HIV prevention campaign followed by commune health station based basic care and support for PLHIV in three provinces.
Early 2000s The 100% condom use program piloted by the Ministry of Health and a number of needle and syringe programs implemented by non-governmental organizations.
Establishment of HIV clinical services at national hospitals followed by district level HIV outpatient clinics offering comprehensive care in Ho Chi Minh City.
2004 (and onward) Health sector-led large scale expansion of HIV prevention, care and treatment initiated (supported by the United States, the United Kingdom, the World Bank and the Global Fund)
For HIV care and treatment, HIV outpatient clinics expanded based on the experiences of a number of model sites.
Community- and home-based care (CHBC) expanded in different forms, such as (i) HIV outpatient clinic based; (ii) Stand-alone model run by PLHIV groups, faith-based organizations or local non-governmental organizations; (iii) Led by Women’s Union; and (iv) Commune health station based.
ART expanded in administrative detention centers for IDUs and SWs, followed by in prisons.
2007 National Plan of Action on Harm Reduction approved. It stipulated that HIV officers at provincial and district health services play a central role in mobilizing peer educators from current or former IDUs/SWs and entertainment establishment owners/managers.
2008 Under the legal framework of the Law on HIV and its decree, the national pilot Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) program began in two provinces,
  1. (Source: [2932], Le TG: Unpublished presentation; 2005, Fujita M and Green K: Unpublished presentation; 2010, VAAC: Unpublished report, 2010).