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Table 2 Socio-technical model of community pharmacy work approaches

From: The socio-technical organisation of community pharmacies as a factor in the Electronic Prescription Service Release Two implementation: a qualitative study

Themes Socially oriented Improvising Technically oriented
Resources
Spatial resource [1. Physical space; 2. Storage; 3. Assembling medicines space] Adequate in two spatial resources or less Adequate in two spatial resources or less Adequate in two spatial resources or more
Support staff [ e.g. CA, collection & delivery drivers] Dispenser is also a member of support staff Dispenser is also a member of support staff Designated support staff
Number of dispensing staff in relation to dispensing duties One or multiple member of staff allocated to one dispensing duty at a time (e.g. walk-in) One member of staff allocated up to three dispensing duties at a time (e.g. walk-in, cassettes, delivery prescriptions) One member of staff allocated to one dispensing duty at a time (e.g. walk-in)
Organisation of work
Workload [Observed activities staff simultaneously engaged in at peak periods] Walk-ins, Low levels of repeat prescription processing Walk-insb, MURs, cassette fillings, batch repeat prescriptions (same day delivery), shelve restocking Walk-ins, batch repeat prescriptions, cassette fillings, shelve restocking
Prioritisation [Simultaneous dispensing work undertaken by staff] 1 activity prioritised at a time 3 or more activities undertaken simultaneously by one staff 3 or more activities undertaken simultaneously by different staff
Dispensing procedures Customised protocol Unstructured protocol Regimented Protocol
  Work adapted to skills of people present Protocols present but not adhered to Work breaks down if protocol not strictly followed
Non dispensing activities Moderate-High High Low–Moderate
Dispensing journey in minutes c 3–8 10–14 2–5
Occupational
Multi-tasking Medium High Low–Medium
Number of items dispensed Low–Moderate Moderate-High Moderate-High
  Up to 150 per day Over 150 per day 0ver 150 per day
Pharmacist autonomy Medium-low High Medium–High
Technology
Technical support Low Medium to High High
Key technological systems Pharmacy Manager System (PMS)d PMS PMS
  AND/OR AND one of the following AND one or more of following
  Colour-basket system Colour-basket system, Computerised Prescriber Order Entry (CPOE) CPOE, Robot, Central computerised prescription managing hub (chain)
    AND/OR
    Colour-basket system
Examples of supporting technologies Extra computer Extra computer, colour-labels Extra computer, remote technical support, technical calibrators, colour-labels
Workflow
Workflow Adaptive Unpredictable Methodical
  Depends more on social elements Depends more on technical elements
  1. b Walk-ins contain acute prescriptions and repeat prescriptions delivered by the customer.
  2. c We use ‘dispensing journey’ to record when prescription is accepted by the pharmacy to when it is dispensed to the customer.
  3. d Software and associated hardware (e.g. label printer) used to manage dispensing.