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Table 5 Results of multilevel analyses incorporating a random intercept for clustering of patients within general practitioners.

From: Outpatient costs in pharmaceutically treated diabetes patients with and without a diagnosis of depression in a Dutch primary care setting

Model Constant βdepression* (SE) 95% CI
Crude model 493 539 (41) 469; 634
Only group included    
Model 1 521 548 (42) 473; 642
Crude model + age, sex    
Model 2 544 542 (43) 461; 634
Model 1 + type of insurance    
Model 3 490 540 (43) 459; 634
Model 2 + diabetes treatment    
Model 4 370 408 (42) 331; 494
Model 3 + comorbidity1    
Model 5 365 463 (42) 386; 554
Model 3 + comorbidity in three categories2    
  1. * Difference in total annual costs between depressed patients with diabetes and non-depressed patients with diabetes
  2. 1 Limited set of selected comorbidities yes or no: coronary and peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, rheumatologic conditions, hyperlipidemia, cardiac disease, peptic acid disease, respiratory illness, pain and inflammation, pain, and anxiety and tension.
  3. 2 No comorbidity, 1 or 2 comorbid conditions, and 3 or more comorbid conditions