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Table 5 Prevalence of child illness in Vietnam in the two weeks preceding the survey, 1997–2006

From: Inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health in Vietnam: a retrospective study of survey data for 1997–2006

  Percentage of children less than five years of age with suspected acute respiratory infection     Percentage of children less than five years of age with diarrhea    
Year 1997 2000 2002 2006 1997 2000 2002 2006
1. Total sample 14.2 9.3 19.6 6.5 10.1 11.3 11.4 6.8
2. Living standards         
Poorest quintile 14.0 11.9 23.8 4.9 10.2 17.5 18.3 9.5
2nd quintile 18.2 11.5 21.6 6.3 11.2 11.0 12.5 6.7
Middle quintile 15.9 7.7 19.8 9.2 12.0 9.3 12.1 6.8
4th quintile 9.8 7.9 16.9 9.0 9.5 7.9 7.3 6.9
Richest quintile 10.2 4.1 14.0 3.1 6.2 5.5 3.8 4.4
Poor/rich ratio 1.38 2.88 1.70 1.59 1.65 3.19 4.81 2.19
Concentration Index −0.0794 −0.1680 −0.1111 −0.0231 −0.0604 −0.2235 −0.2577 −0.1414
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
3. Education of mother         
No education 15.6 8.4 15.5 6.1 12.5 21.0 16.1 8.2
Primary 12.9 12.0 21.3 6.0 11.9 13.1 11.9 7.8
Lower secondary 15.2 9.8 22.0 8.3 8.9 10.1 11.8 5.7
Upper secondary or higher 13.1 4.5 12.1 5.2 8.1 4.8 6.1 5.3
Ratio no education / upper secondary or higher 1.19 1.84 1.28 1.19 1.54 4.41 2.63 1.54
Concentration Index −0.0045 −0.0958 −0.0638 0.0418 −0.0764 −0.1904 −0.1061 −0.0722
p (CI = 0) p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
4. Ethnicity         
Majority 13.3 9.3 17.5 6.8 9.8 9.5 9.0 5.9
Minority 17.3 9.2 28.4 5.2 11.1 19.0 21.2 11.0
Ratio minority/ majority 1.30 0.99 1.62 0.77 1.13 1.99 2.36 1.85
5. Sex of child         
Male 16.9 9.1 21.9 6.5 11.7 12.5 12.7 7.5
Female 11.3 9.4 17.0 6.4 8.4 10.1 9.9 6.1
Ratio female/ male 0.67 1.04 0.78 0.98 0.71 0.81 0.78 0.81
6. Place of residence         
Urban 11.1 5.2 14.0 4.3 5.8 6.3 3.5 4.2
Rural 14.7 10.2 20.8 7.2 10.8 12.5 13.0 7.7
Ratio rural/ urban 1.33 1.96 1.48 1.68 1.86 2.00 3.75 1.84
7. Region         
Red River Delta 19.7 6.5 18.2 10.0 10.3 6.8 7.5 8.9
Northern Uplands 18.0 10.8 28.8 4.8 11.2 15.9 17.7 6.8
North Central Coast 10.8 14.0 16.7 8.6 10.6 12.2 8.9 5.4
South Central Coast 8.3 10.7 21.8 6.3 11.2 11.8 18.6 6.4
Central Highlands 11.1 7.6 21.0 7.3 8.1 14.7 15.3 10.1
Southeast 10.3 4.9 13.4 4.6 4.1 6.7 5.2 6.3
Mekong River Delta 14.7 9.4 16.1 4.6 11.8 12.2 8.5 5.7
  1. Notes:
  2. 1. p (CI = 0) = probability of concentration index being equal to zero (if p < 0.05, then there is a statistically significant difference between a concentration index of zero, indicating perfect equality, and the obtained concentration index; such a result indicates inequality).
  3. 2. p (CI1997 = CI2006) = probability of concentration index for 1997 being equal to concentration index for 2006 (if p < 0.05, then there is a statistically significant difference between the concentration index in 1997 and the concentration index in 2006; such a result indicates a change in inequality over time).