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Table 4 Nutrition outcomes in Vietnam, 1997–2006

From: Inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health in Vietnam: a retrospective study of survey data for 1997–2006

  Percentage of children under five who are under-weight Percentage of children under five who are stunted Percentage of children under five who are wasted Percentage of newborn with low birth weight (<2,500 g) Percentage of newborn with low birth weight (<2,500 g) Percentage of newborn with low birth weight (<2,500 g) Percentage of newborn with low birth weight (<2,500 g)
Year 2000 2000 2000 1997 2000 2002 2006
1. Total sample 32.4 35.9 5.6 8.9 5.7 7.0 6.2
2. Living standards        
Poorest quintile 41.0 44.4 7.4 17.2 8.0 11.3 9.6
2nd quintile 35.7 41.8 4.8 12.4 6.3 6.9 6.6
Middle quintile 30.6 37.0 4.2 7.7 7.8 6.3 6.1
4th quintile 28.7 30.8 5.0 5.7 5.8 8.4 6.8
Richest quintile 17.0 16.1 5.0 4.0 1.6 3.5 3.7
Ratio poor/rich 2.41 2.75 1.49 4.26 5.01 3.21 2.58
Concentration Index −0.1067 −0.1216 −0.0967 −0.2810 −0.2081 −0.1584 −0.1236
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) N/a N/a N/a p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
3. Education of mother        
No education 46.5 55.5 5.2 14.2 6.9 17.7 6.4
Primary 36.8 40.1 6.4 10.0 6.5 6.9 5.6
Lower secondary 30.5 34.2 5.3 8.5 4.3 6.8 7.4
Upper secondary or higher 20.0 19.5 5.3 5.2 7.2 3.1 5.6
Ratio no education / upper secondary or higher 2.32 2.84 0.97 2.74 0.96 5.70 1.15
Concentration Index −0.0816 −0.1254 −0.0336 −0.1063 0.1238 −0.1684 −0.0040
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) N/a N/a N/a p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
4. Ethnicity        
Majority 29.4 32.0 5.3 7.9 6.0 6.2 6.1
Minority 44.9 52.2 6.9 18.7 2.0 14.4 6.8
Ratio minority / majority 1.53 1.63 1.31 2.36 0.33 2.35 1.11
5. Sex of child        
Male 30.5 34.8 6.3 7.2 N/a 6.8 N/a
Female 34.3 37.1 4.8 10.7 N/a 7.2 N/a
Ratio female / male 1.12 1.07 0.75 1.49 N/a 1.06 N/a
6. Place of residence        
Urban 21.1 19.2 6.0 4.3 1.7 4.0 3.5
Rural 35.0 39.8 5.5 10.2 7.1 7.8 7.2
Ratio rural/urban 1.66 2.08 0.91 2.36 4.18 1.96 2.02
7. Region        
Red River Delta 27.5 34.4 4.7 6.5 3.8 5.0 7.8
Northern Uplands 37.1 48.0 3.6 5.3 1.0 8.0 6.3
North Central Coast 38.4 44.8 6.4 11.2 12.2 3.6 5.0
South Central Coast 30.2 31.5 5.1 9.0 7.0 7.1 5.0
Central Highlands 43.8 43.2 6.6 3.2 3.7 21.0 6.1
Southeast 26.8 25.8 5.0 8.7 7.2 7.6 4.7
Mekong River Delta 28.6 25.4 8.2 13.1 6.6 7.1 6.8
  1. Notes:
  2. 1. N/a = not applicable or data not available.
  3. 2. p (CI = 0) = probability of concentration index being equal to zero (if p < 0.05, then there is a statistically significant difference between a concentration index of zero, indicating perfect equality, and the obtained concentration index; such a result indicates inequality).
  4. 3. p (CI1997 = CI2006) = probability of concentration index for 1997 being equal to concentration index for 2006 (if p < 0.05, then there is a statistically significant difference between the concentration index in 1997 and the concentration index in 2006; such a result indicates a change in inequality over time).