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Table 3 Infant and under-five mortality rates in Vietnam, 1997–2006

From: Inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health in Vietnam: a retrospective study of survey data for 1997–2006

  IMR     U5MR    
Year 1997 2000 2002 2006 1997 2000 2002 2006
1. Total sample 32.0 36.8 24.2 18.8 41.2 47.0 30.3 23.0
2. Living standards         
Poorest quintile 42.4 45.5 33.6 19.8 61.0 59.5 43.9 24.0
2nd quintile 37.5 38.0 29.2 23.5 45.8 48.0 34.4 29.3
Middle quintile 30.7 35.5 20.8 22.5 33.4 45.0 25.6 26.8
4th quintile 28.7 26.3 19.0 14.3 37.0 32.3 25.8 17.8
Richest quintile 15.1 14.0 12.7 4.4 20.7 17.3 14.2 5.6
Ratio poor/rich 2.8 3.3 2.6 4.5 2.9 3.4 3.1 4.3
Concentration Index −0.1639 −0.1913 −0.1764 −0.1896 −0.1828 −0.2024 −0.1843 −0.1875
p (CI = 0) p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
3. Education of mother         
No education 38.8 47.5 25.9 32.3 57.0 63.0 35.6 41.0
Primary 38.7 40.0 29.5 17.3 50.9 51.5 34.3 20.8
Lower secondary 31.4 33.5 21.9 24.0 39.8 42.0 29.1 30.0
Upper secondary or higher 17.4 12.3 18.8 5.6 20.7 14.8 21.7 6.7
Ratio no education / upper secondary or higher 2.2 3.9 1.4 5.8 2.8 4.3 1.6 6.1
Concentration Index −0.1071 −0.1685 −0.0785 −0.1137 −0.1278 −0.1809 −0.0734 −0.1157
p (CI = 0) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p < 0.05 p > 0.05
p (CI1997 = CI2006) p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05 p > 0.05
4. Ethnicity         
Majority 27.0 32.0 23.2 15.8 34.7 40.0 28.4 18.8
Minority 55.6 44.5 28.5 33.8 72.5 58.3 38.5 43.0
Ratio minority / majority 2.1 1.4 1.2 2.1 2.1 1.5 1.4 2.3
5. Sex of child         
Male 39.7 36.3 25.6 14.0 49.1 46.3 33.4 17.5
Female 23.5 36.0 22.7 20.8 32.6 46.3 27.0 25.5
Ratio female/ male 0.6 1.0 0.9 1.5 0.7 1.0 0.8 1.5
6. Place of residence         
Urban 20.6 18.5 13.3 3.8 25.1 22.5 15.9 4.5
Rural 34.3 38.3 26.5 22.0 44.6 48.5 33.3 27.3
Ratio rural/ urban 1.7 2.1 2.0 5.9 1.8 2.2 2.1 6.1
7. Region         
Red River Delta 25.1 39.3 22.4 29.8 32.3 50.0 27.2 37.3
Northern Uplands 40.7 35.0 28.2 29.0 50.2 44.0 32.9 37.0
North Central Coast 35.0 39.3 40.1 18.8 40.0 50.8 47.1 22.5
South Central Coast 31.4 32.5 17.8 10.8 40.8 41.0 19.8 13.0
Central Highlands 45.0 37.0 21.8 17.8 51.6 47.5 35.8 21.5
Southeast 17.8 13.0 11.0 6.8 17.8 16.0 19.5 8.5
Mekong River Delta 33.1 45.0 21.5 12.3 51.5 59.3 28.8 15.0
  1. Notes:
  2. 1. Infant mortality rate (IMR) = number of deaths of children less than one year of age per 1,000 live births.
  3. 2. Under-five mortality rate (U5MR) = number of deaths of children less than five years of age per 1,000 live births.
  4. 3. p (CI = 0) = probability of concentration index being equal to zero (if p < 0.05, then there is a statistically significant difference between a concentration index of zero, indicating perfect equality, and the obtained concentration index; such a result indicates inequality).
  5. 4. p (CI1997 = CI2006) = probability of concentration index for 1997 being equal to concentration index for 2006 (if p < 0.05, then there is a statistically significant difference between the concentration index in 1997 and the concentration index in 2006; such a result indicates a change in inequality over time).