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Table 1 Aggregated cost data used in the model of cervical screening in Australia, 2010 (see Additional file 1 for associated cost items)

From: Expenditure and resource utilisation for cervical screening in Australia

Cost item Calculated aggregated cost in 2010 Itemised costs contained in the aggregated cost Data sources
Cost of screening with cytology test
Having a cytology test alone (including $19.60 for cytology test) $58.05 A weighted average cost of consultation, a cost of cytology test and a PEI MBS online database 2010 [24] and Britt et. al. 2010 [27]
Having a cytology test after an unsatisfactory test $67.23 An average cost of consultation, a cost of cytology test and a PEI MBS online database 2010 [24]
Cost of abnormal cytology follow-up
Abnormal cytology test result consultation and gynaecologist referral $39.38 An average cost of consultation MBS online database 2010 [24] and Britt et. al. 2010 [27]
Having a colposcopy without biopsy $143.75 A cost of specialist consultation and a colposcopy MBS online database 2010 [24]
Having a colposcopy with biopsy $295.98 A cost of specialist consultation, a colposcopy, a biopsy and PEI MBS online database 2010 [24]
Having a colposcopy without biopsy (with a cytology sample taken) $171.60 A cost of specialist consultation, a colposcopy, a cytology test and a PEI MBS online database 2010 [24]
Having a colposcopy with biopsy (with a cytology sample taken) $315.58 A cost of specialist consultation, a colposcopy, a biopsy, a cytology and PEI MBS online database 2010 [24]
Cost of treating a precancerous lesions and follow-up women treated for CIN2/3
Treatment for precancerous lesions $1,263.23 A weighted average cost of various high-grade lesions treatment procedures including ablation therapy, excision therapy and hysterectomy MBS online database 2010 [24] and DRG [25]
Follow-up for women treated for CIN 2/3 at 4–6 months after treatment (using cytology test and colposcopy) $130.65 A cost of specialist consultation, a cytology, a colposcopy and PEI MBS online database 2010 [24]
Follow-up for women treated for CIN 2/3 at 12/24 months after treatment (using cytology test and HCII) $131.23 A weighted average cost of consultation, a cytology, a HPV testing and PEI MBS online database 2010 [24]
Cost of work–up for cancer diagnosis
Localised cancer $1,820.98 A weighted average cost of various cancer work-up diagnosis procedures including colposcopy, chest x-ray, CT scan, PET scan, MRI, bone scan and cystoscopy. MBS online database 2010 [24], DRG [25] and expert opinions [14, 16]
Regional cancer $2,007.69
Distant cancer $1,979.24
Cost of cancer treatments
Localised cancer treatment $13,115.93 A weighted average cost of surgical (conisation, hysterectomy, radical hysterectomy and exenteration) and non surgical treatments (radiationtheraphy, adjuvant radiation therapy and chemo-radiation) received by cancer patients. MBS online database 2010 [24], DRG [25], and expert opinions [14, 16]
Regional cancer treatment $32,048.22
Distant cancer treatment $24,250.30
Terminal care $24,250.30 Assumption
  1. PEI, Patient episode initiation; MBS, Medical benefit schedule; DRG, diagnosed-related group; CIN2/3, cervical intraepithelial neoplasm grade 2 or 3; HCII, Hybrid Capture II.
  2. The weighted average cost of cancer treatment was derived from the cost data by FIGO stage, which was grouped to broadly represent the extent of disease categories. The cost of cancer treatment varies significantly between FIGO 1a1 ($7,330.55), 1a2 ($13,164.32), 1b2 ($16,270.50) and the more advanced stages ($24,250.30-$32,458.30). See Additional file 1: Table S7–S10 for further details of the calculation of cancer treatment costs.