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Table 4 Association between hospital admissions for CHD and location with adjustments for population and practice characteristics

From: Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey

   Model 1    Model 2    Model 3    Model 4  
  OR* (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z
Age and sex             
Male < 30 ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Male30_34 6.21 (0.49 78.15) 0.063 6.25 (0.50 77.82) 0.061 4.75 (0.40 56.48) 0.105 4.75 (0.38 60.17) 0.114
Male35_39 6.12 (0.67 55.92) 0.035 6.15 (0.67 56.24) 0.035 4.90 (0.54 44.21) 0.063 3.01 (0.29 31.08) 0.220
Male40_44 33.55 (4.59 245.36) < 0.001 33.57 (4.62 243.96) < 0.001 27.58 (3.69 206.35) < 0.001 23.22 (3.06 175.95) < 0.001
Male45_49 74.16 (9.96 551.96) < 0.001 75.59 (10.16 562.40) < 0.001 59.18 (8.02 436.71) < 0.001 53.74 (7.14 404.44) < 0.001
Male50_54 170.39 (23.19 1251.92) < 0.001 170.39 (23.45 1238.11) < 0.001 139.90 (18.76 1043.33) < 0.001 132.91 (17.38 1016.13) < 0.001
Male55_59 205.77 (29.19 1450.64) < 0.001 203.74 (29.14 1424.52) < 0.001 161.44 (22.47 1160.04) < 0.001 135.21 (18.49 988.55) < 0.001
Male60_64 193.14 (27.90 1336.90) < 0.001 193.89 (28.08 1338.57) < 0.001 154.88 (21.68 1106.68) < 0.001 131.83 (18.05 962.63) < 0.001
Male65_69 161.35 (22.96 1133.66) < 0.001 174.50 (24.85 1225.56) < 0.001 139.04 (19.25 1004.24) < 0.001 169.90 (22.13 1304.20) < 0.001
Male70_74 163.06 (22.48 1182.70) < 0.001 184.75 (25.31 1348.78) < 0.001 156.26 (20.71 1178.90) < 0.001 181.49 (22.35 1473.79) < 0.001
Female < 30 0.00 (0.00 0.00) < 0.001 0.00 (0.00 0.00) < 0.001 0.00 (0.00 0.00) < 0.001 0.00 (0.00 0.00) < 0.001
Female30_34 1.48 (0.11 20.48) 0.699 1.48 (0.11 20.52) 0.699 1.23 (0.09 17.22) 0.843 1.16 (0.08 16.39) 0.883
Female35_39 9.63 (1.10 84.70) 0.007 9.76 (1.11 85.62) 0.007 8.34 (0.94 73.95) 0.012 5.29 (0.51 54.44) 0.065
Female40_44 7.03 (0.82 60.24) 0.019 7.21 (0.85 61.37) 0.017 6.18 (0.74 51.59) 0.027 5.94 (0.70 50.15) 0.031
Female45_49 16.62 (2.18 126.56) < 0.001 17.00 (2.24 129.15) < 0.001 11.72 (1.54 89.09) 0.002 11.38 (1.46 88.97) 0.002
Female50_54 35.63 (4.85 262.00) < 0.001 35.93 (4.89 264.15) < 0.001 30.84 (4.15 228.96) < 0.001 28.37 (3.81 211.34) < 0.001
Female55_59 73.93 (10.25 533.24) < 0.001 75.52 (10.53 541.46) < 0.001 51.40 (7.27 363.54) < 0.001 41.82 (5.76 303.45) < 0.001
Female60_64 80.94 (11.24 583.04) < 0.001 80.31 (11.20 575.85) < 0.001 65.97 (9.06 480.42) < 0.001 57.36 (7.57 434.48) < 0.001
Female65_69 60.50 (8.11 451.47) < 0.001 67.63 (9.01 507.71) < 0.001 48.66 (6.41 369.24) < 0.001 53.11 (6.58 428.91) < 0.001
Female70_74 77.00 (10.30 575.79) < 0.001 81.05 (10.83 606.71) < 0.001 69.78 (9.06 537.59) < 0.001 89.42 (10.84 737.58) < 0.001
Location1             
PC     ref.    ref.    ref.   
US     0.94 (0.65 1.36) 0.649 1.03 (0.71 1.48) 0.860 1.08 (0.74 1.57) 0.666
AST     0.89 (0.52 1.53) 0.572 0.98 (0.55 1.73) 0.916 0.99 (0.57 1.71) 0.878
RST     0.37 (0.16 0.86) 0.002 0.41 (0.16 1.03) 0.013 0.34 (0.10 1.14) 0.009
VRST     0.65 (0.13 3.16) 0.486 0.70 (0.10 5.04) 0.646 1.06 (0.12 9.60) 0.995
AR     0.69 (0.40 1.18) 0.077 0.78 (0.45 1.35) 0.246 0.83 (0.48 1.42) 0.326
RR     0.68 (0.35 1.35) 0.152 0.86 (0.41 1.84) 0.621 0.96 (0.45 2.08) 0.735
VRR     0.49 (0.26 0.90) 0.003 0.57 (0.31 1.03) 0.015 0.70 (0.37 1.35) 0.087
Social Class             
Intermediate        ref.    ref.   
Professional        0.61 (0.27 1.36) 0.112 0.58 (0.26 1.28) 0.073
Skilled non-manual        0.99 (0.61 1.61) 0.959 0.99 (0.60 1.64) 0.935
Skilled manual        1.27 (0.81 1.97) 0.171 1.17 (0.74 1.85) 0.358
Partly skilled        1.19 (0.75 1.91) 0.331 1.16 (0.71 1.91) 0.450
Unskilled        1.36 (0.75 2.46) 0.182 1.28 (0.67 2.45) 0.315
House ownership             
Owned        ref.    ref.   
Publicly rented        1.75 (1.23 2.51) < 0.001 1.75 (1.19 2.57) < 0.001
Privately rented        1.14 (0.41 3.22) 0.738 1.24 (0.41 3.74) 0.605
Others        1.81 (0.66 5.00) 0.131 2.02 (0.71 5.80) 0.095
Practice char.             
WTE GPs per 1000 pop.           1.32 (0.59 2.96) 0.382
GPs age (mean)           0.99 (0.95 1.02) 0.271
Survey year 1998           0.57 (0.39 0.83) 0.110
Log pseudo-likelihood -2806    -2799    -2710    -2425   
Sample size 15435    15423    14448    13019   
Joint significance of rural           X2(7) = 9.84 p = 0.197  
  1. * OR Odds Ratio ref. reference group 1 PC Primary Cities, US Urban Settlements, AST Accessible Small Towns, RST Remote Small Towns, VRST Very Remote Small Towns, AR Accessible Rural, RR Remote Rural, VRR Very Remote Rural. 2 p-values calculated using standard errors clustered by practice