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Table 3 Association between all-cause mortality and location, without and with adjustments for population and practice characteristics

From: Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey

  Model 1 Model 2   Model 3 Model 4
  OR* (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z
Age and sex             
Male < 30 ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Male30_34 1.62 (0.43 6.12) 0.352 1.64 (0.43 6.20) 0.340 2.27 (0.47 11.02) 0.181 1.80 (0.34 9.54) 0.363
Male35_39 1.62 (0.46 5.67) 0.323 1.62 (0.46 5.66) 0.324 2.40 (0.55 10.49) 0.125 2.43 (0.56 10.63) 0.120
Male40_44 3.13 (1.00 9.81) 0.010 3.16 (1.00 9.93) 0.010 4.72 (1.13 19.74) 0.005 4.24 (0.99 18.14) 0.010
Male45_49 4.52 (1.50 13.57) < 0.001 4.57 (1.52 13.74) < 0.001 6.63 (1.65 26.61) < 0.001 5.82 (1.42 23.78) 0.001
Male50_54 12.25 (4.41 33.99) < 0.001 12.36 (4.44 34.37) < 0.001 17.80 (4.70 67.35) < 0.001 16.31 (4.29 61.94) < 0.001
Male55_59 19.99 (7.54 53.00) < 0.001 20.28 (7.63 53.87) < 0.001 27.61 (7.59 100.41) < 0.001 25.59 (7.04 92.96) < 0.001
Male60_64 36.14 (13.67 95.57) < 0.001 36.81 (13.92 97.38) < 0.001 50.63 (13.77 186.17) < 0.001 44.62 (12.08 164.77) < 0.001
Male65_69 54.81 (19.96 150.52) < 0.001 55.99 (20.34 154.1) < 0.001 80.85 (21.1 308.8) < 0.001 77.03 (19.54 303.74) < 0.001
Male70_74 93.97 (34.90 252.9) < 0.001 97.80 (36.13 264.7) < 0.001 138.12 (36.5 521.9) < 0.001 131.21 (33.64 511.86) < 0.001
Female < 30 0.43 (0.10 1.85) 0.135 0.42 (0.10 1.84) 0.131 0.56 (0.10 3.25) 0.394 0.37 (0.05 2.71) 0.201
Female30_34 1.55 (0.44 5.51) 0.372 1.54 (0.43 5.47) 0.379 1.87 (0.40 8.81) 0.299 1.87 (0.40 8.80) 0.296
Female35_39 0.89 (0.21 3.74) 0.830 0.89 (0.21 3.76) 0.836 1.29 (0.24 6.96) 0.695 0.85 (0.13 5.56) 0.822
Female40_44 4.29 (1.32 13.98) 0.001 4.34 (1.33 14.17) 0.001 6.10 (1.41 26.40) 0.001 5.20 (1.17 23.03) 0.004
Female45_49 2.85 (0.88 9.16) 0.021 2.89 (0.90 9.32) 0.020 4.02 (0.94 17.26) 0.014 3.43 (0.77 15.37) 0.034
Female50_54 9.31 (3.45 25.15) < 0.001 9.37 (3.46 25.39) < 0.001 13.75 (3.65 51.80) < 0.001 13.50 (3.57 51.09) < 0.001
Female55_59 14.11 (5.27 37.79) < 0.001 14.13 (5.27 37.91) < 0.001 19.26 (5.21 71.17) < 0.001 18.49 (5.00 68.38) < 0.001
Female60_64 18.84 (7.14 49.73) < 0.001 19.00 (7.20 50.14) < 0.001 25.75 (7.01 94.55) < 0.001 23.26 (6.32 85.70) < 0.001
Female65_69 28.75 (10.62 77.79) < 0.001 29.12 (10.76 78.77) < 0.001 38.18 (10.2 142.31) < 0.001 36.36 (9.48 139.44) < 0.001
Female70_74 47.56 (17.77 127.29) < 0.001 49.20 (18.39 131.6) < 0.001 65.80 (17.7 244.67) < 0.001 61.44 (16.02 235.61) < 0.001
Location1             
PC     ref.    ref.    ref.   
US     0.87 (0.68 1.12) 0.152 0.89 (0.70 1.14) 0.238 0.93 (0.71 1.20) 0.443
AST     0.78 (0.52 1.18) 0.118 0.78 (0.51 1.19) 0.127 0.84 (0.54 1.30) 0.293
RST     0.56 (0.29 1.09) 0.025 0.63 (0.33 1.19) 0.061 0.79 (0.44 1.43) 0.307
VRST     0.60 (0.34 1.05) 0.018 0.60 (0.33 1.09) 0.027 0.65 (0.36 1.17) 0.059
AR     0.83 (0.58 1.20) 0.201 0.92 (0.64 1.34) 0.584 0.97 (0.66 1.42) 0.814
RR     0.51 (0.30 0.87) 0.001 0.59 (0.32 1.06) 0.020 0.58 (0.31 1.07) 0.023
VRR     0.45 (0.25 0.81) < 0.001 0.54 (0.32 0.92) 0.003 0.53 (0.30 0.94) 0.004
Social Class             
Intermediate        ref.    ref.   
Professional        0.37 (0.14 0.93) 0.006 0.27 (0.09 0.82) 0.002
Skilled non-manual        1.07 (0.76 1.51) 0.607 1.08 (0.75 1.55) 0.591
Skilled manual        1.36 (0.97 1.90) 0.020 1.43 (1.00 2.04) 0.009
Partly skilled        1.33 (0.93 1.89) 0.039 1.48 (1.02 2.14) 0.007
Unskilled        1.39 (0.93 2.08) 0.032 1.45 (0.95 2.22) 0.024
House ownership             
Owned        ref.    ref.   
Publicly rented        2.10 (1.64 2.70) < 0.001 2.09 (1.61 2.71) < 0.001
Privately rented        1.90 (0.99 3.65) 0.011 2.04 (1.05 3.98) 0.006
Others        2.88 (1.27 6.53) 0.001 2.99 (1.23 7.24) 0.001
Practice char.             
WTE GPs per 1000 pop.           0.89 (0.44 1.81) 0.670
GPs age (mean)           1.00 (0.97 1.02) 0.911
Survey year 1998           0.93 (0.71 1.22) 0.492
Log pseudo-likelihood -2338    -2326    -2156    -1945   
  15435            
Sample size     15423    14448    13019   
Joint significance of rural           X2(7) = 11.5 p = 0.116  
  1. * OR Odds Ratio, ref. reference group 1 PC Primary Cities, US Urban Settlements, AST Accessible Small Towns, RST Remote Small Towns, VRST Very Remote Small Towns, AR Accessible Rural, RR Remote Rural, VRR Very Remote Rural. 2 p-values calculated using standard errors clustered by practice