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Table 2 Association between hypertension and location, without and with adjustments for population and practice characteristics

From: Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey

Hypertension   Model 1    Model 2    Model 3    Model 4 2  
  OR* (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z OR (99% CI) P > z
Age and sex             
Male < 30 ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Male30_34 1.86 (0.96 3.58) 0.015 1.88 (0.97 3.62) 0.013 1.77 (0.88 3.54) 0.036 1.90 (0.93 3.86) 0.020
Male35_39 2.52 (1.34 4.75) < 0.001 2.52 (1.34 4.75) < 0.001 2.34 (1.19 4.59) 0.001 2.30 (1.15 4.62) 0.002
Male40_44 5.29 (2.98 9.41) < 0.001 5.30 (2.98 9.44) < 0.001 5.20 (2.76 9.80) < 0.001 5.14 (2.68 9.86) < 0.001
Male45_49 7.16 (4.03 12.71) < 0.001 7.21 (4.06 12.79) < 0.001 6.72 (3.58 12.61) < 0.001 7.33 (3.84 13.96) < 0.001
Male50_54 11.08 (6.43 19.07) < 0.001 11.09 (6.44 19.12) < 0.001 10.71 (5.89 19.49) < 0.001 11.24 (6.09 20.75) < 0.001
Male55_59 13.91 (8.02 24.11) < 0.001 14.01 (8.08 24.30) < 0.001 13.41 (7.39 24.33) < 0.001 13.51 (7.34 24.87) < 0.001
Male60_64 18.55 (10.86 31.70) < 0.001 18.67 (10.92 31.94) < 0.001 17.53 (9.81 31.35) < 0.001 19.35 (10.67 35.11) < 0.001
Male65_69 22.00 (12.20 39.66) < 0.001 22.46 (12.45 40.51) < 0.001 20.91 (11.07 39.47) < 0.001 23.11 (11.86 45.04) < 0.001
Male70_74 22.45 (11.88 42.42) < 0.001 22.89 (12.11 43.25) < 0.001 21.01 (10.63 41.50) < 0.001 20.89 (10.36 42.12) < 0.001
Female < 30 0.33 (0.12 0.90) 0.004 0.33 (0.12 0.90) 0.005 0.28 (0.09 0.89) 0.005 0.33 (0.10 1.07) 0.015
Female30_34 0.45 (0.17 1.16) 0.030 0.45 (0.18 1.17) 0.031 0.38 (0.14 1.06) 0.016 0.40 (0.14 1.15) 0.025
Female35_39 1.15 (0.58 2.29) 0.589 1.16 (0.59 2.31) 0.571 1.13 (0.53 2.39) 0.675 1.14 (0.52 2.50) 0.657
Female40_44 1.90 (1.00 3.60) 0.010 1.91 (1.01 3.62) 0.009 1.81 (0.90 3.61) 0.028 1.84 (0.86 3.92) 0.039
Female45_49 3.75 (2.09 6.72) < 0.001 3.78 (2.10 6.79) < 0.001 3.57 (1.89 6.77) < 0.001 3.56 (1.86 6.82) < 0.001
Female50_54 7.14 (4.06 12.55) < 0.001 7.18 (4.09 12.62) < 0.001 6.60 (3.52 12.38) < 0.001 7.19 (3.83 13.51) < 0.001
Female55_59 9.37 (5.37 16.34) < 0.001 9.49 (5.44 16.55) < 0.001 8.75 (4.71 16.25) < 0.001 9.09 (4.83 17.09) < 0.001
Female60_64 16.30 (9.50 27.97) < 0.001 16.31 (9.48 28.07) < 0.001 14.19 (7.65 26.29) < 0.001 14.88 (7.90 28.01) < 0.001
Female65_69 21.90 (12.35 38.82) < 0.001 22.20 (12.50 39.44) < 0.001 19.77 (10.42 37.49) < 0.001 20.90 (10.69 40.88) < 0.001
Female70_74 35.42 (19.90 63.05) < 0.001 36.02 (20.22 64.18) < 0.001 32.74 (17.26 62.13) < 0.001 33.11 (17.35 63.17) < 0.001
Location1             
PC     ref.    ref.    ref.   
US     1.01 (0.84 1.21) 0.925 1.04 (0.86 1.26) 0.573 1.06 (0.87 1.29) 0.452
AST     1.03 (0.78 1.37) 0.758 1.06 (0.80 1.40) 0.602 1.09 (0.82 1.45) 0.458
RST     0.57 (0.33 1.00) 0.010 0.60 (0.35 1.05) 0.018 0.68 (0.37 1.24) 0.096
VRST     1.40 (0.86 2.27) 0.074 1.59 (1.03 2.45) 0.006 1.50 (0.95 2.35) 0.021
AR     0.96 (0.74 1.25) 0.682 1.02 (0.78 1.34) 0.868 1.03 (0.77 1.37) 0.809
RR     0.99 (0.63 1.56) 0.949 1.04 (0.65 1.64) 0.845 1.08 (0.68 1.72) 0.655
VRR     1.05 (0.76 1.46) 0.679 1.17 (0.84 1.63) 0.234 1.09 (0.75 1.60) 0.542
Social Class             
Intermediate     ref. ref.        
Professional        1.18 (0.78 1.80) 0.305 1.12 (0.72 1.73) 0.506
Skilled non-manual        1.14 (0.89 1.46) 0.110 1.12 (0.86 1.45) 0.279
Skilled manual        1.13 (0.89 1.43) 0.146 1.17 (0.91 1.51) 0.100
Partly skilled        1.10 (0.86 1.40) 0.335 1.14 (0.88 1.48) 0.190
Unskilled        1.10 (0.81 1.50) 0.409 1.13 (0.81 1.57) 0.338
House ownership             
Owned        ref.    ref.   
Publicly rented        1.34 (1.11 1.60) < 0.001 1.35 (1.11 1.63) < 0.001
Privately rented        1.08 (0.66 1.60) 0.690 1.13 (0.68 1.87) 0.528
Others        1.09 (0.57 2.10) 0.721 1.15 (0.57 2.29) 0.607
Practice char.             
WTE GPs per 1000 pop.           0.83 (0.49 1.40) 0.361
GPs age (mean)           0.99 (0.98 1.01) 0.340
Survey year 1998           0.98 (0.81 1.19) 0.822
Log pseudo-likelihood -4135    -4127    -3931    -3541   
Sample size 13227    13216    12424    11193   
Joint significance of rural           X2(7) = 8.19 p = 0.31 6  
  1. * OR Odds Ratio ref. reference group 1 PC Primary Cities, US Urban Settlements, AST Accessible Small Towns, RST Remote Small Towns, VRST Very Remote Small Towns, AR Accessible Rural, RR Remote Rural, VRR Very Remote Rural. 2 p-values calculated using standard errors clustered by practice