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Table 3 Description of the type of service

From: The growth and composition of primary and community-based care services. Metrics and evidence from the Italian National Health Service

Type of service Description of the service
Hospital admissions Costs for ordinary and day hospital admissions. It includes all the costs for inpatients and is measured through DRG system
Pharmaceutical Costs for drugs distributed directly or through local private chemists
Outpatient visits and examinations It includes the costs for specialist visits in hospital and ambulatory facilities, diagnostic exams and laboratory exams to outpatients
General Practitioners (including night service) It includes the costs for General Practitioners, General Practitioners for children under 14 (“Pediatri di Libera Scelta” in the INHS) and 24 hours, night service
Admissions of elderly people to residential structures Costs for institutionalization of old people (>65) in intermediate facilities and for access to daily structures, including healthcare assistance
Mental healthcare Costs for institutionalization and ambulatory services for mental care. It does not include neuro-psychiatry (included in mother and child) and dependencies
Prevention, public health and screening Costs for screening programs (e.g. Colon-rectum cancer and breast cancer) and more general expenditure for illness prevention managed by LHAs
Emergency services It includes emergency departments and ambulance services
Rehabilitation Costs for long term care in residential, intermediate structures and in ambulatory facilities. It does not include assistance in hospital departments for inpatients (included in hospital admissions)
Disabled people Costs for institutionalization of disabled people in residential structures and ambulatory services, including eventual vouchers to be spent by disabled people
Prosthesis Costs for providing and managing prosthesis
Home healthcare Mono-professional or multi-professional (eg. GPs, nurses, specialists) home care
Mother and child Costs for ambulatory services including family planning clinics, neuro-psychiatry for children and community support to lone parents
Dependencies It includes ambulatory services for dependencies.
Hospice Costs for admissions in hospice structures
Overall cost per inhabitant Full costing for citizens’ healthcare. It includes administrative and general costs (eg. Costs for LHAs’ top managers), which are shared in percentage to all the other services. It also includes eventual health expenditure deficits (which have an average value within our sample of 2.5% of the overall expenditure) [28].