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Table 3 Adjusted odds-ratios (AOR) of the use of experimental antiretroviral drugs in a therapy initiation/change episode by demographic/epidemiological characteristics of patients and clinical and laboratory data at the time of initiation/change

From: Determinants of access to experimental antiretroviral drugs in an Italian cohort of patients with HIV: a multilevel analysis

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  Overall use of an experimental antiretroviral Use of an experimental antiretroviral in a clinical trial Use of an experimental antiretroviral in an EAPa
  AOR 95%CI p AOR 95%CI p AOR 95%CI p
Total AIDS cases reported in the clinical centre    0.94    0.79    0.93
0-250 1.00    1.00    1.00   
251-500 1.10 (0.64-1.91)   1.07 (0.50-2.29)   1.07 (0.58-1.96)  
501-1000 1.03 (0.59-1.79)   0.97 (0.45-2.11)   0.99 (0.54-1.81)  
> 1000 0.93 (0.54-1.60)   0.74 (0.35-1.59)   1.18 (0.65-2.11)  
Type of clinical center    0.77    0.82    0.37
Non-teaching hospital 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Teaching hospital 0.94 (0.62-1.42)   1.07 (0.61-1.88)   0.82 (0.53-1.27)  
Gender    0.41    0.69    0.48
Female 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Male 0.89 (0.67-1.18)   0.92 (0.62-1.37)   0.87 (0.59-1.28)  
Age at therapy initiation/change (per 5 year increase) 1.00 (0.94-1.08) 0.90 0.99 (0.90-1.09) 0.82 1.02 (0.93-1.12) 0.70
Place of birth    0.36    0.97    0.14
Italy 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Other countries 0.80 (0.51-1.28)   1.01 (0.56-1.83)   0.57 (0.28-1.19)  
Years of education    0.64    0.76    0.81
< = 8 1.00    1.00    1.00   
9-13 1.14 (0.87-1.48)   1.19 (0.82-1.73)   1.11 (0.77-1.59)  
> 13 1.24 (0.75-2.05)   1.23 (0.60-2.50)   1.33 (0.67-2.64)  
Unknown 0.96 (0.70-1.32)   0.97 (0.62-1.52)   0.97 (0.63-1.49)  
Marital status    0.07    0.41    0.03
Never married 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Married 1.25 (0.99-1.58)   1.15 (0.83-1.59)   1.43 (1.03-1.98)  
Occupational status    0.79    0.92    0.81
Unemployed 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Employed 1.08 (0.83-1.41)   1.08 (0.74-1.57)   1.07 (0.74-1.55)  
Other 1.19 (0.65-2.17)   1.08 (0.46-2.53)   1.30 (0.57-2.97)  
HIV exposure category    0.09    0.99    0.01
Heterosexual 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Homosexual/Bisexual 1.33 (0.96-1.85)   1.05 (0.66-1.66)   1.67 (1.06-2.63)  
IDU (Active+Former) 0.85 (0.60-1.19)   1.00 (0.61-1.64)   0.79 (0.50-1.24)  
Other/Unknown 0.92 (0.57-1.47)   1.04 (0.57-1.88)   0.74 (0.35-1.55)  
Clinical and laboratory data at treatment change          
Clinical AIDS    0.81    0.12    0.24
No 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Yes 0.96 (0.72-1.29)   0.71 (0.45-1.10)   1.25 (0.86-1.81)  
CD4 cell count (cells/ml)    0.62    0.65    0.65
< 200 1.00    1.00    1.00   
200-349 0.89 (0.66-1.21)   0.82 (0.54-1.25)   0.97 (0.64-1.48)  
> = 350 1.02 (0.76-1.35)   0.89 (0.60-1.32)   1.15 (0.77-1.70)  
HIV RNA (log 10 copies/ml)    0.05    0.99    0.01
< 2 1.00    1.00    1.00   
2-3 1.27 (0.87-1.83)   1.05 (0.60-1.83)   1.39 (0.86-2.26)  
> = 4 1.55 (1.07-2.23)   1.02 (0.58-1.80)   2.05 (1.28-3.28)  
Presence of hepatic comorbidities    0.96    0.05    0.05
No 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Yes 1.01 (0.76-1.33)   0.65 (0.43-0.99)   1.44 (1.00-2.09)  
Presence of other b comorbidities    0.85    0.98    0.96
No 1.00    1.00    1.00   
Yes 1.04 (0.71-1.52)   0.99 (0.54-1.83)   1.01 (0.62-1.64)  
Number of experienced drugs    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
Naive 1.00    1.00    1.00   
3-4 1.06 (0.78-1.44)   0.55 (0.35-0.87)   2.49 (1.58-3.93)  
5-7 1.40 (0.91-2.15)   0.57 (0.28-1.15)   3.54 (1.99-6.30)  
> 8 3.71 (2.13-6.45)   2.60 (1.08-6.28)   7.07 (3.43-14.56)  
Number of failed drugs    0.002    0.94    < 0.001
0-2 1.00    1.00    1.00   
3-4 1.42 (1.03-1.95)   1.07 (0.62-1.83)   1.57 (1.06-2.33)  
> 5 2.38 (1.47-3.86)   1.17 (0.48-2.83)   2.96 (1.67-5.23)  
Calendar year (1 year increase) 0.80 (0.76-0.84) < 0.001 0.78 (0.73-0.85) < 0.001 0.82 (0.76-0.88) < 0.001
Likelihood Ratio test for significance of Random effect    < 0.001    < 0.001    0.001
  1. a Expanded access program; b cardio-vascular/metabolic diseases or neoplasm