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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients aged 18-64 years with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and non-pneumonia controls

From: Comorbidities as a driver of the excess costs of community-acquired pneumonia in U.S. commercially-insured working age adults

  Pneumonia Cases Non-Pneumonia Controls Standardized Difference (%)
Sample Size 402,831 1,203,823 Not applicable
Sociodemographics characteristics of patients
Male 45.6% 45.9% 0.58
Age in years, mean (sd) 46.8 (12.2) 46.5 (12.3) 2.37
Age group (yrs.)    0.00
  18-34 17.6% 17.6% 0.02
  35-44 20.8% 20.9% 0.02
  45-54 28.4% 28.8% 0.87
  55-64 33.1% 32.7% 0.87
Comorbid conditions in patients    0.00
 Charlson-Deyo index, mean (sd) 0.44 (1.07) 0.45 (1.02) 0.74
Selected for excess cost analyses
 Asthma 6.3% 6.0% 1.31
 Diabetes 8.1% 8.6% 1.65
 COPD 4.1% 2.7% 7.23
 Congestive heart failure 1.3% 1.1% 1.91
Others
 Cardiovascular disease 22.2% 23.0% 1.93
 Cancer 6.0% 6.2% 0.98
 HIV/AIDS 0.3% 0.3% 0.39
 Hepatitis B 0.0% 0.0% 0.12
 Hepatitis C 0.4% 0.2% 2.30
 Orthopedic Surgery 0.1% 0.2% 1.27
 Other Musculoskeletal Surgery 2.2% 2.3% 0.98
 Pregnancy 0.8% 1.0% 1.40
Patient's follow-up in days, mean (sd) 318.2 (97.6) 318.4 (100.1) 0.20
Insurance plan type
 Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) 55.0% 56.3% 2.50
 Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) 20.2% 19.9% 0.80
 Point of Service (POS) 10.4% 10.4% 0.16
 Comprehensive 8.7% 6.8% 7.27
 Other 5.6% 6.6% 4.07
Plan Type    
 Capitated 21.7% 21.7% 0.13
Geographic region
 Northeast 10.6% 10.7% 0.43
 North Central 27.0% 26.6% 0.90
 South 41.8% 42.4% 1.13
 West 20.2% 19.9% 0.68
 Unknown 0.5% 0.4% 0.30
Urban/Rural residence
 Urban 80.6% 82.2% 4.33
 Rural 19.0% 17.4% 4.29
 Unknown 0.4% 0.4% 0.46
Industry type
 Manufacturing, Durable Goods 20.8% 20.7% 0.29
 Transportation, Communications, Utilities 10.5% 10.6% 0.56
 Services 6.3% 6.3% 0.23
 Manufacturing, Nondurable Goods 5.4% 5.5% 0.54
 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate 5.3% 4.9% 1.88
 Retail Trade 4.5% 4.9% 2.05
 Oil & Gas Extraction, Mining 0.8% 0.8% 0.36
 Unknown 46.4% 46.2% 0.45
Dependent status
 Employee 63.3% 62.3% 2.09
 Dependent 36.7% 37.7% 2.09
Pre-period Expenditures
 Total inpatient costs $1,005 ($10,752) $1,078 ($9,746) 0.71
 Total outpatient costs $2,927 ($12,033) $1,896 ($7,291) 10.36
 Total outpatient pharmacy costs $1,055 ($2,318) $686 ($1,704) 18.14
  1. Abbreviations: sd, standard deviation.