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Table 1 Attributes included in the study

From: Prioritizing strategies for comprehensive liver cancer control in Asia: a conjoint analysis

Label Strategy Description
Access to treatments Improved access to recommended treatments All liver cancer patients and people that are at-risk of liver cancer have access to recommended medical care, including doctors’ ability to request screening and tests for liver function and asymptomatic disease through liver cancer prevention and treatment, paid by governmental and/or private health insurance.
Centers of excellence Centers of excellence for liver cancer Referral of patients with liver cancer and other liver diseases that increase risk of liver cancer, to medical centers or research institutions with major liver disease departments that treat liver cancer and/or conduct the latest research in liver cancer. Specialized liver cancer centers to provide coordinated surveillance, treatment and research within a national liver cancer program.
Clinician Education Education of primary care physicians and hepatologists about HCC Education of related healthcare providers (primary care physicians, internists, gastroenterologists, hepatologists) about liver cancer, such as the importance of early risk assessment, management of hepatic diseases to prevent progression to liver cancer.
Measuring social burden Measuring incidence, prevalence and burden of liver cancer Measuring the health care costs or burden to the society, compared to screening, earlier detection and management of liver cancer patients or at-risk people.
Monitoring at-risk population Continuous surveillance of at-risk populations Monitoring at-risk populations to detect liver diseases and liver cancer at an early stage, including the stratification of disease risk and hepatic disease surveillance in those at high risk of HCC.
Multidisciplinary management Multidisciplinary management of HCC Due to the complex nature of liver cancer and multiple contributing factors, a highly skilled multidisciplinary team approach is necessary for managing liver cancer surgically and non-surgically, as well as managing patients with hepatitis and other diseases that significantly increase the risk of developing liver cancer.
National guidelines National standards and guidelines The establishment and maintenance of nationwide, evidence-based standards and guidelines for the adoption of prevention, treatment and surveillance of liver cancer.
Public awareness Organized disease advocacy and public awareness Widespread public awareness of risk factors and prevention for liver disease as well as liver cancer in the general population, including organized consumer liver disease and liver cancer advocacy.
Research infrastructure Increased infrastructure for translational research Increased infrastructure, including capacity and qualified personnel, to conduct translational, clinical and basic research in all stages of liver cancer, from prevention to end-stage disease treatment and care.
Risk Assessment and referral Early risk assessment in primary care Earlier and improved risk assessment and screening by primary healthcare providers (general practitioners, internists, gastroenterologists) and immediate referral of patients with diagnosed liver disease and/or liver cancer to medical experts specializing in hepatic diseases and /or HCC.
Transplantation infrastructure Transplantation infrastructure and allocation Improved transplantation infrastructure and allocation of livers, including total liver transplants as well as partial transplants from living donors; sufficient highly skilled surgical and other healthcare providers, latest transplant techniques and technology.