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Table 2 Indirect Work Steps: Average duration of each step and time worked by employee

From: Patient and work flow and costs associated with staff time and facility usage at a comprehensive cancer centre in Quebec, Canada – a time and motion study

Indirect Work Steps n Mean Time (min)
   (95% Confidence Interval)
Physician Visits   
Exam room preparation and cleanup (orderly) 27 1.1 (1.0 - 1.2)
Sending tubes of blood down to laboratory (phlebotomist) 10 1.0 (0.8 - 1.2)
Retrieving and filing patient charts (clerk) 300 0.6 (0.6 - 0.7)
Total mean time worked by employees   2.7 (2.3 - 3.1)
Treatment Visits   
FOLFOX (n=52); XELOX (n=8)   
Sending tubes of blood down to laboratory (phlebotomist) a, b 10 1.0 (0.8 - 1.2)
Retrieving and filing patient charts (clerk) a, b 300 0.6 (0.6 - 0.7)
Prescription validation (pharmacist) a, b 16 5.3 (4.0 - 6.5)
Preparation of calcium and magnesium a, b 44 6.5 (6.0 - 6.8)
 1. pharmacist 44 2.8 (2.8 - 2.8)
 2. pharmacy technician 44 3.7 (3.3 - 4.0)
Preparation of FOLFOX (5-FU, leucovorin, oxaliplatin) a 6 39.6 (35.9 - 43.3)
 1. pharmacist 6 18.6 (14.5 - 22.7)
 2. pharmacy technician 6 21.0 (16.7 - 25.2)
Pre-counts of capecitabine and labeling (pharmacy technician) b 10 2.0 (2.0 - 2.0)
Preparation of capecitabine tablets for XELOX treatment b 6 3.4 (2.3 - 4.5)
 1. pharmacist 6 0.5 (0.2 - 0.8)
 2. pharmacy technician 6 2.9 (2.1 - 3.7)
Preparation of oxaliplatin for XELOX treatment b 9 7.9 (7.2 - 8.5)
 1. pharmacist 9 3.9 (3.4 - 4.4)
 2. pharmacy technician 9 4.0 (3.5 - 4.4)
Preparation of bevacizumab a, b 6 10.1 (8.4 - 11.8)
 1. pharmacist 6 4.9 (3.8 - 6.0)
 2. pharmacy technician 6 5.2 (3.6 - 6.9)
Prescription/treatment verification (nurse) a, b 14 4.5 (−0.8 - 9.8)
Preparation and verification of IV bags, premeds (nurse) a, b 54 2.4 (1.9 - 3.0)
Total mean time worked by employees (all indirect steps) (Based on 86.7% FOLFOX/bevacizumab – n=52; 13.3% XELOX/bevacizumab – n=8)   66.5 (59.6 - 73.2)
Total mean time worked by employees   
1. FOLFOX/bevacizumab treatment a   70.0 (67.1 - 72.7)
2. XELOX/bevacizumab treatment b   43.7 (41.2 - 46.0)
  1. aApplicable to FOLFOX/bevacizumab treatment.
  2. bApplicable to XELOX/bevacizumab treatment.