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Table 5 Summary of perceptions of patient-provider interactions by focus group participants and providers

From: Two sides of the coin: patient and provider perceptions of health care delivery to patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds

EMERGENT THEMES Arabic Sudanese Tongan Chinese Vietnamese Health-care Providers
Communication problems between patient and provider       
Language Barrier   x x x x x
Medical Terminology   x   x   x
Problems with interpreter     x   x
Not understanding accent of non-Western providers x      
Lack of translated &/or health-related information x x x x x x
Cultural issues impacting on treatment       
General cultural misunderstanding on behalf of provider   x x x   x
Cultural differences decreasing compliance to treatment       x
Outright Discrimination   x    x x
Feeling disrespected &/or undermined   x   x   
Discriminated against by non-Western providers     x x  
General problematic patient-provider interactions       
Lack of professionalism on behalf of provider x   x x   x
Erroneous diagnoses   x x x   
Problems with health provider not operating to appointment schedule x    x   
Patients not keeping appointments or often rescheduling       x
Lack of rapport   x   x x x
Inadequate provision of information of diagnosis/therapy by health provider   x x x x x
Inadequate treatment in hospitals   x    x  
Lack of training or referral services to enable delivery of appropriate care to trauma victims       x
Positive interactions between patient and provider       
Generally satisfied with treatment x x   x x x
Rapport established with provider x    x   x
Rewarding experience       x
Adequate provision of information regarding diagnosis/therapy by health provider x x   x   x