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Table 6 Results for multiple logistic regression analysis of distress financing for those who arrived alive at study hospitals following road traffic injury (RTI)

From: Burden of out-of-pocket expenditure for road traffic injuries in urban India

Variable  Category  Total N = 723 Distress financing*
Number with distress financing (%) Odds ratio for incurring distress financing (95% CI)
Type of road user Pedestrian/cyclist 220 178 (80.9) 1.4 (0.8-2.6)
MTV 356 215 (60.4) 0.9 (0.5-1.5)
Others 147 105 (71.4) 1
Type of hospital‡ Private 168 53 (31.5) 1
Public 555 445 (80.2) 2.8 (1.7-4.6)
Per capita annual household income quartile‡ I (lowest) 197 175 (88.8) 7.0 (3.7-13.3)
II 192 154 (80.2) 3.7 (2.1-6.5)
III 153 104 (68.0) 3.2 (1.8-5.6)
IV (highest) 180 65 (36.1) 1
In-patient days‡ <4 266 148 (55.6) 1
4 - 7 140 81 (57.9) 1.3 (0.8-2.3)
> 7 317 269 (84.9) 4.5 (2.8-7.4)
Injury severityठ1-4 380 227 (59.7) 1
>4 330 262 (79.4) 1.8 (1.1-2.6)
Access to insurance‡ Yes 153 50 (32.7) 1
No 570 448 (78.6) 3.4 (2.0-5.7)
  1. CI refers to confidence interval.
  2. * Omnibus test for model coefficients p < 0.001; Nagelkerke R Square 46%, and Hosmer and Lemeshow χ2 p = 0.09.
  3. †MTV: motorised two-wheeled vehicles including moped/luna, scooter/scootertte and motorcycle;
  4. others include all vehicles other than MTV/ cycle & pedestrians.
  5. ‡χ2 test for significance: p < 0.001.
  6. Data missing for 1 participant.
  7. §Data not available for 14 participants.