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Table 4 Multiple logistic regression analysis for catastrophic out-of-pocket medical and total expenditure for those who arrived alive at study hospitals following road traffic injury

From: Burden of out-of-pocket expenditure for road traffic injuries in urban India

Variable Category Total N = 722* Out-of-pocket medical expenditure Out-of-pocket total expenditure
Number with catastrophic expenditure Odds ratio for catastrophic expenditure (95% CI) Number with catastrophic expenditure Odds ratio for catastrophic expenditure (95% CI)
Type of road user‡ Pedestrian/cyclist 220 38 (17.3) 0.6 (0.3-1.0) 106 (48.2) 0.9 (0.6-1.5)
MTV 356 86 (24.2) 1.2 (0.7-2.0) 160 (44.9) 1.4 (0.9-2.2)
Others 146 34 (23.3) 1 67 (45.9) 1
Type of hospital Private 168 40 (23.8) 5.2 (2.7-9.9) 56 (33.3) 2.0 (1.2-3.5)
Public 554 118 (21.3) 1 277 (50.0) 1
Per capita annual household income quartile§ I 197 67 (34.0) 4.6 (2.3-9.0) 133 (67.5) 7.3 (4.1-13.0)
II 192 39 (20.3) 1.8 (0.9-3.6) 98 (51.0) 3.2 (1.8-5.4)
III 153 25 (16.3) 1.6 (0.8-3.2) 59 (38.6) 2.4 (1.4-4.1)
IV 180 27 (15.0) 1 43 (23.9) 1
In-patient days§ <4 266 20 (7.5) 1 80 (30.1) 1
4 - 7 140 19 (13.6) 2.4 (1.2-4.8) 47 (33.6) 1.3 (0.8-2.2)
> 7 316 119 (37.7) 10.5 (5.9-19.0) 206 (65.2) 4.6 (3.0-6.8)
Injury severity§** 1-4 379 62 (16.4) 1 131 (34.6) 1
>4 330 92 (27.9) 1.2 (0.8-1.8) 198 (60.0) 2.1 (1.5-3.0)
Access to insurance§ Yes 153 16 (10.5) 1 32 (20.9) 1
No 569 142 (25.0) 3.8 (1.9-7.6) 301 (52.9) 3.3 (1.9-5.6)
  1. Catastrophic expenditure is defined as >25% of the annual household income of the injured. CI refers to confidence interval.
  2. *Data missing for 1 case due to non-reporting of annual household income.
  3. †Omnibus test for model coefficients: p < 0.0001; Nagelkerke R Square: 30% and 33%; and Hosmer and Lemeshow χ2 p = 0.96 and 0.27 for out-of-pocket medical and total expenditure, respectively.
  4. ‡MTV: motorised two-wheeled vehicles including moped/luna, scooter/scootertte and motorcycle; others include all vehicles other than MTV/ cycle & pedestrians.
  5. χ2 test for significance: p < 0.001 for out of pocket medical expenditure.
  6. §χ2 test for significance: p < 0.001 for out of pocket total expenditure.
  7. **Data not available for 14 participants.