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Table 6 Odds ratios estimating the association between nurse staffing and individual hospital-associated infections

From: The association between nurse staffing and hospital outcomes in injured patients

  Unadjustedc(95% CI) P Value Adjustedd(95% CI) P Value
Sepsis     
 RN staffinga 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 0.97 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 0.37
 LPN staffinga e 0.98 (0.87, 1.10) 0.77 1.27 (1.11, 1.45) <0.001
 Nurses' Aide staffinga 0.97 (0.93, 1.01) 0.113 1.00 (0.96, 1.03) 0.81
 % Ratio of LPN to Total Nursingb 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 0.99 1.06 (1.03, 1.10) <0.001
 Total Nursing Timeb 1.00 (0.90, 1.11) 0.96 1.07 (1.00, 1.14) 0.07
Pneumonia     
 RN staffing 1.01 (0.97, 1.05) 0.74 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) 0.17
 LPN staffing 0.78 (0.61, 0.99) 0.043 1.00 (0.78, 1.30) 0.98
 Nurses' Aide staffing 0.95 (0.89, 1.01) 0.096 0.92 (0.87, 0.98) 0.006
 % Ratio of LPN to Total Nursing 0.94 (0.88, 0.99) 0.02 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) 0.86
 Total Nursing Time 1.00 (0.84, 1.18) 0.97 1.10 (0.95, 1.30) 0.18
Staphylococcus infections     
 RN staffing 1.01 (0.99, 1.04) 0.21 1.02 (1.00, 1.05) 0.056
 LPN staffing 1.02 (0.86, 1.21) 0.81 1.15 (0.98, 1.36) 0.083
 Nurses' Aide staffing 0.96 (0.93, 1.00) 0.064 0.98 (0.93, 1.02) 0.32
 % Ratio of LPN to Total Nursing 0.97 (0.95, 1.04) 0.91 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) 0.19
 Total Nursing Time 1.06 (0.96, 1.17) 0.25 1.10 (1.00, 1.21) 0.04
Clostridium difficile infections     
 RN staffing 0.97 (0.94, 1.01) 0.16 0.99 (0.96, 1.02) 0.54
 LPN staffing 0.73 (0.56, 0.94) 0.014 0.83 (0.65, 1.07) 0.15
 Nurses' Aide staffing 1.01 (0.95, 1.07) 0.76 1.00 (0.95, 1.06) 0.98
 % Ratio of LPN to Total Nursing 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) 0.12 0.96 (0.90, 1.02) 0.19
 Total Nursing Time 0.87 (0.76, 1.01) 0.07 0.94 (0.82, 1.08) 0.19
  1. a results based on model which included RN staffing and LPN staffing as nurse staffing measures.
  2. b results based on model which included staffing ratio and total nurse staffing as measures of nurse staffing.
  3. c In the unadjusted analyses, only the nurse staffing measures were included in the regression models.
  4. d adjusted for patient demographics, injury severity, mechanism of injury, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics (teaching status, trauma center status, hospital ownership, hospital bed size, technology, geographic region).
  5. e staffing is in 15-minute increments per patient day (0.25 HPPD).