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Table 2 Multivariate hazard ratios and 95% CIs for covariates by phases of the observation period in Improve functional status strata (n = 210)

From: Effect of in-home and community-based services on the functional status of elderly in the long-term care insurance system in Japan

Models 6-months 12-months 18-months 24-months 36-months
Hazard ratio 95% CI p-value Hazard ratio 95% CI p-value Hazard ratio 95% CI p-value Hazard ratio 95% CI p-value Hazard ratio 95% CI p-value
Age 0.99 0.94 - 1.04 0.653 0.98 0.94 - 1.03 0.400 1.00 0.97 - 1.04 0.902 1.01 0.97 - 1.04 0.758 1.01 0.98 - 1.05 0.495
Gender
Male 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
Female 4.51 1.51 - 13.50 0.007 3.32 1.47 - 7.50 0.004 1.74 0.95 - 3.17 0.072 1.68 0.94 - 3.01 0.082 1.84 1.06 - 3.21 0.031
Income level 0.95 0.68 -1.33 0.764 0.97 0.74 - 1.28 0.840 0.87 0.70 - 1.09 0.218 0.84 0.68 - 1.04 0.113 0.89 0.73 - 1.09 0.251
Length of stay in LTCI system 0.96 0.94 - 0.98 0.001 0.97 0.95 - 0.99 0.001 0.96 0.95 - 0.98 <.0001 0.96 0.95 - 0.98 <.0001 0.96 0.95 - 0.98 <.0001
Utilization Rate of Benefits 0.24 0.02 - 2.68 0.245 0.14 0.02 - 1.10 0.061 0.24 0.05 - 1.23 0.087 0.34 0.07 - 1.65 0.182 0.48 0.11 - 2.10 0.332
Number of LTC Services
1 service 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
2 + services 0.41 0.08 - 2.04 0.274 0.28 0.07 - 1.08 0.066 0.37 0.12 - 1.12 0.079 0.35 0.12 - 1.08 0.067 0.40 0.14 - 1.12 0.081
Type of LTC Services
mixed 1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00    1.00   
commuting services 0.46 0.08 - 2.57 0.376 0.44 0.10 - 1.86 0.264 0.45 0.15 - 1.40 0.169 0.48 0.16 - 1.44 0.189 0.46 0.17 - 1.27 0.133
in-home services 0.28 0.06 - 1.42 0.124 0.35 0.09 - 1.43 0.145 0.39 0.13 - 1.20 0.100 0.38 0.13 - 1.17 0.093 0.41 0.15 - 1.14 0.087
Amount of LTC Services (days/month) 1.02 0.97 - 1.06 0.457 1.03 1.00 - 1.07 0.090 1.02 0.98 - 1.05 0.382 1.01 0.98 - 1.05 0.469 1.01 0.97 - 1.04 0.779
n / censored 210/173    210/160    210/139    210/135    210/123   
Likelihood ratio test 0.002    0.002    0.0011    0.001    <.0001