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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study cohort by disability transition strata (n = 369)

From: Effect of in-home and community-based services on the functional status of elderly in the long-term care insurance system in Japan

Variables Improve (n = 99) Equal (n = 112) Decline (n = 158) Total (n = 369)
Age (years) [mean,SD] 79 (7.5) 80 (7.3) 82 (7.8) 81 (7.7)
Female [n, (%)] 72 (73%) 79 (71%) 103 (65%) 254 (69%)
Income level [n, (%)]
level 1 6 (6%) 3 (3%) 4 (3%) 13 (4%)
level 2 26 (26%) 17 (15%) 24 (15%) 67 (18%)
level 3 11 (11%) 19 (17%) 20 (13%) 50 (14%)
level 4 47 (47%) 62 (55%) 98 (62%) 207 (56%)
level 5 4 (4%) 5 (4%) 7 (4%) 16 (4%)
level 6 5 (5%) 6 (5%) 5 (3%) 16 (4%)
Type of LTC Services [n, (%)]
commuting services 42 (43%) 57 (51%) 81 (51%) 180 (49%)
in-home services 34 (34%) 32 (29%) 34 (22%) 100 (27%)
mixed 23 (23%) 23 (20%) 43 (27%) 89 (24%)
Number of LTC Services (monthly) [n, (%)]
1 service 67 (68%) 78 (70%) 88 (56%) 233 (63%)
2 services 24 (24%) 27 (24%) 55 (35%) 106 (29%)
3+ services 8 (8%) 7 (6%) 15 (9%) 30 (8%)
Utilization of LTC Services(days/month) [mean,SD]
commuting services 6.9 (6.23) 8.4 (5.26) 9.3 (4.35) 8.5 (5.18)
in-home services 18.4 (11.12) 19.2 (11.86) 24.2 (18.36) 20.7 (14.30)
mixed 27.2 (13.23) 26.6 (11.34) 25.3 (12.08) 26.1 (12.09)
Utilization Rate of Benefits [mean,SD] 0.324 (0.188) 0.361 (0.229) 0.472 (0.228) 0.399 (0.228)
Length-of stay in LTCI system (months)
(mean, [SD]) 40 (17.32) 29 (16.82) 38 (17.06) 36 (17.62)
(median; [min,max]) 39 (9–72) 26 (6–69) 37 (6–72) 34 (6–72)
Length-of stay in Care Level 1 (months)
(mean, [SD]) 17 (13.83) 21 (12.93) 14 ( 10.93) 17 (12.72)
(median, [ min,max]) 12 (3–61) 19 (5–61) 10 ( 3–48) 14 (3–61)