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Table 5 The development of future (incident) diabetes, future (incident) hypertension, and death over 11.5 years of follow-up among obese individuals +/− other lifestyle risk-factors (as compared with propensity-matched healthy controls) *

From: Obesity, lifestyle risk-factors, and health service outcomes among healthy middle-aged adults in Canada

Risk-factors Diabetes STD of the mean P value Hypertension STD of the mean P value AMI or death STD of the mean P value Death STD of the mean P value
One lifestyle risk-factor             
Obese (N = 822) 7.2% 0.03 0.55 17.0% 0.07 0.16 6.1% 0.16 0.001 4.6% 0.14 0.004
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 822) 6.4%    14.6%    2.8%    2.1%   
Two lifestyle risk-factors             
Obese + smoking (N = 381) 21.3% 0.57 <0.001 26.8% 0.32 <0.001 8.9% 0.16 0.03 6.0% 0.08 0.25
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 381) 3.1%    14.2%    5%    4.2%   
Obese + sedentary (N = 765) 21.7% 0.49 <0.001 32.4% 0.39 <0.001 7.5% 0.09 0.07 5.4% 0.06 0.25
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 765) 5.4%    17.6%    5.4%    4.2%   
Obese + distressed (N = 508) 21.3% 0.55 <0.001 30.3% 0.33 <0.001 9.3% 0.13 0.04 7.3% 0.09 0.15
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 508) 3.7%    16.5%    5.9%    5.1%   
Three lifestyle risk-factors             
Obese + smoking + sedentary (N = 229) 23.6% 0.65 <0.001 28.8% 0.37 <0.001 10% 0.24 0.006 6.6% 0.14 0.13
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 229) 2.6%    14%    3.9%    3.5%   
Obese + smoking + distressed (N = 167) 21.6% 0.62 <0.001 25.1% 0.40 <0.001 9.6% 0.16 0.13 7.8% 0.12 0.22
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 167) 2.4%    10.2%    5.4%    4.8%   
Obese + distressed + sedentary (N = 302) 22.2% 0.56 <0.001 33.8% 0.33 <0.001 9.6% 0.16 0.01 7.3% 0.18 0.03
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 302) 4.0%    19.5%    5.0%    3.6%   
  1. *High alcohol consumption is defined as consumption exceeding the median level for the entire cohort (regardless of subgroup and prior to propensity matching) and consists of consuming ≥ 2 drinks per day. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as a frequency of physical activity that fell below the median for the study sample (i.e.,. < 17 days per month of exercising for ≥ 15 minutes per session). High psychological distress is defined as the number of individuals whose distress scores, as measured using the Ontario Health Survey derived distress scale exceeding the median for the entire cohort (a score of >2) regardless of subgroup and prior to propensity matching).
  2. STD of the mean = Standardized Difference of the Mean.
  3. AMI or death = Acute myocardial infarction or death.