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Table 4 Outcomes among individuals who were overweight or obese and had other lifestyle risk-factors (as compared with propensity-matched controls) *

From: Obesity, lifestyle risk-factors, and health service outcomes among healthy middle-aged adults in Canada

Overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) Cumulative average costs (SD) STD of the mean P value Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) Cumulative average costs (SD) STD of the mean P value
One lifestyle risk-factor     One lifestyle risk-factor    
Overweight (N = 2,896) 7,138.16 (18,443.25) 0.02 0.56 Obese (N = 822) 8,294.67 (19,836.89) 0.05 0.27
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 2,896) 6,866.16 (17,697.33)    Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 822) 7,323.59 (16,319.45)   
Two lifestyle risk-factors     Two lifestyle risk-factors    
Overweight + smoking (N = 971) 8,880.13 (19,637.38) 0.11 0.02 Obese + smoking (N = 381) 11,910.27 (25,381.14) 0.16 0.03
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 971) 6,826.64 (18,575.46)    Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 381) 8,128.23 (21,826.60)   
Overweight + sedentary (N = 1418) 8,013.25 (16,471.07) 0.06 0.12 Obese + sedentary (N = 765) 12,329.83 (28,969.98) 0.15 0.003
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 1418) 6,917.95 (19,682.70)    Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 765) 8,250.36 (24,459.08)   
Overweight + distressed (N = 1089) 8,594.73 (18,768.77) 0.11 0.007 Obese + distressed (N = 508) 12,788.78 (26,685.21) 0.22 <0.001
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 1089) 6,579.22 (16,900.57)    Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 508) 7,546.57 (19,592.65)   
Three lifestyle risk-factors     Three lifestyle risk-factors    
Overweight + smoking + sedentary (N = 535) 9,216.40 (19,452.87) 0.10 0.08 Obese + smoking + sedentary (N = 229) 11,317.21 (22,818.74) 0.11 0.22
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 535) 7,190.30 (19,885.19)    Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 229) 8,684.30 (24,431.00)   
Overweight + smoking + distressed (N = 380) 9,465.67 (19,412.22) 0.19 0.009 Obese + smoking + distressed (N = 167) 11,749.28 (23,476.53) 0.26 0.02
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 380) 6,026.03 (17,524.67)    Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 167) 6,402.59 (17,631.10)   
Overweight + distressed + sedentary (N = 566) 8,393.17 (17,643.75) 0.12 0.04 Obese + distressed + sedentary (N = 302) 14,186.81 (30,536.44) 0.30 <0.001
Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 566) 6,524.60 (13,856.13)    Normal weight healthy matched controls (N = 302) 7,029.87 (14,931.77)   
  1. * High alcohol consumption is defined as consumption exceeding the median level for the entire cohort (regardless of subgroup and prior to propensity matching) and consists of consuming ≥ 2 drinks per day. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as a frequency of physical activity that fell below the median for the study sample (i.e.,. < 17 days per month of exercising for ≥ 15 minutes per session). High psychological distress is defined as the number of individuals whose distress scores, as measured using the Ontario Health Survey derived distress scale exceeding the median for the entire cohort (a score of >2) regardless of subgroup and prior to propensity matching).
  2. STD of the mean = Standardized Difference of the Mean.