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Table 3 Health care expenditures among obese, overweight, smokers, distressed, and those with sedentary lifestyles (each compared to their corresponding propensity-matched controls) *

From: Obesity, lifestyle risk-factors, and health service outcomes among healthy middle-aged adults in Canada

Health service expenditures CAD $ Obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) (N = 812) Matched normal weight controls (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2)(N = 812) P value
Total cost (SD) 8,294.67 (19,836.89) 7,323.59 (16,319.45) 0.27
Hospitalization costs (SD) 5,579.27 (17,703.04) 4,817.31 (13,976.07) 0.33
Physician visit costs (SD) 1,347.11 (1,503.19) 1,298.95 (1,374.94) 0.49
Drug costs (SD) 4,166.72 (5,501.10) 4,635.79 (6,421.78) 0.35
Cardiac procedural costs (SD) 304.25 (2,017.39) 157.05 (1,401.07) 0.08
  Overweight (BMI: 25–29.9 kg/m 2 ) (N = 2,896) Matched normal weight controls (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ) (N = 2,896) P value
Total cost (SD) 7,138.16 (18,443.25) 6,866.16 (17,697.33) 0.56
Hospitalization costs (SD) 4,678.35 (16,460.79) 4,362.34 (15,810.42) 0.46
Physician visit costs (SD) 1,186.89 (1,107.21) 1,226.22 (1,328.81) 0.21
Drug costs (SD) 4,408.64 (6,087.27) 4,863.85 (6,327.79) 0.12
Cardiac procedural costs (SD) 199.94 (1,767.63) 188.67 (1,602.24) 0.80
  Smokers (N = 2,966) Matched non-smoker controls (N = 2,966)  
Total cost (SD) 8,626.50 (21,597.33) 7,299.83 (19,696.90) 0.004
Hospitalization costs (SD) 6,001.27 (19,183.45) 4,779.86 (17,320.47) 0.01
Physician visit costs (SD) 1,269.20 (1,365.92) 1,242.50 (1,279.84) 0.42
Drug costs (SD) 5,310.55 (6,945.39) 4,841.21 (6,643.73) 0.33
Cardiac procedural costs (SD) 334.81 (2,216.06) 164.71 (1,501.69) <0.001
  Distressed (N = 3,239) Matched non-distressed controls (N = 3,239)  
Total cost (SD) 8,454.12 (20,932.08) 7,131.86 (19,073.29) 0.007
Hospitalization costs (SD) 5,575.40 (18,489.80) 4,726.94 (17,050.19) 0.05
Physician visit costs (SD) 1,453.16 (1,552.62) 1,168.33 (1,125.90) <0.001
Drug costs (SD) 5,547.66 (7,210.97) 4,931.83 (6,920.64) 0.37
Cardiac procedural costs (SD) 249.56 (1,898.72) 192.45 (1,654.15) 0.20
  Sedentary (N = 4,302) Matched non-sedintary controls(N = 4,302)  
Total cost (SD) 8,087.56 (19,681.31) 7,846.43 (20,749.90) 0.58
Hospitalization costs (SD) 5,224.70 (17,026.70) 5,111.80 (18,627.41) 0.76
Physician visit costs (SD) 1,275.04 (1,248.92) 1,266.49 (1,309.95) 0.75
Drug costs (SD) 5,341.78 (6,878.87) 4,837.28 (6,565.49) 0.22
Cardiac procedural costs (SD) 294.54 (2,184.06) 194.21 (1,651.09) 0.22
  1. * High alcohol consumption is defined as consumption exceeding the median level for the entire cohort (regardless of subgroup and prior to propensity matching) and consists of consuming ≥ 2 drinks per day.
  2. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as a frequency of physical activity that fell below the median for the study sample (i.e.,. < 17 days per month of exercising for ≥ 15 minutes per session).