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Table 1 Baseline characteristics before propensity matching comparing individuals who were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m 2 ) with normal weight individuals (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ), and comparing individuals who were overweight (BMI 25–29.9kg/m 2 ) with normal weight persons (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 )

From: Obesity, lifestyle risk-factors, and health service outcomes among healthy middle-aged adults in Canada

   Obese (N = 1,363) Overweight (N = 3,375) Normal (N = 4,660) P value*
Socio-ethno-demographic Male (%) 718 (52.7) 2,136 (63.3) 1,858 (39.9) <0.001
  Mean age (SD) 42.56 41.83 37.9 (11.5) <0.001
   (11.56) (11.69)   
  Caucasian (%) 1296 (95.1) 3154 (93.5) 4247 (91.1) <0.001
  High income (%) 553 (40.6) 1581 (46.8) 2024 (43.4) 0.72
  Intermediate income (%) 398 (29.2) 979 (29.0) 1309 (28.1) 0.32
  Low income (%) 412 (30.2) 815 (24.2) 1327 (28.5) 0.54
Pre-existing disease Prior hospitalizations (%) 502 (38.8) 1033 (30.6) 1670 (35.8) 0.19
  Diabetes (%) 34 (2.5) 62 (1.8) 41 (0.88) <0.001
  Hypertension (%) 39 (2.9) 42 (1.2) 25 (0.54) <0.001
  Prior depression (%) 25 (1.8) 32 (0.95) 63 (1.35) 0.60
  High alcohol consumption (%) 323 (23.7) 1070 (31.7) 1226 (26.3) 0.61
Risk-factors Current smoking (%) 384 (28.2) 998 (29.6) 1653 (35.5) <0.001
  Sedentary 777 (57.0) 1743 (51.6) 2277 (48.9) <0.001
  Psychological distress§ 518 (38.0) 1098 (32.5) 1713 (36.8) 0.42
0 other risk-factors None 302 (22.2) 837 (24.8) 1104 (23.7) 0.002
1 other risk-factor Sedentary-only 332 (24.4) 831 (24.6) 897 (19.3)  
  Distressed-only§ 131 (9.6) 359 (10.6) 526 (11.3)  
  Smoking-only 79 (5.8) 269 (8.0) 438 (9.4)  
2 other risk-factors Sedentary + distressed 214 (15.7) 350 (10.4) 480 (10.3)  
  Sedentary + smoking 132 (9.7) 340 (10.1) 508 (10.9)  
  Distressed + smoking 74 (5.4) 167 (5.0) 315 (6.8)  
3 other risk-factors Sedentary + distressed + smoking 99 (7.3) 222 (6.6) 392 (8.4)  
  1. * Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square for dichotomous outcomes; least squares regression with 1 degree of freedom of continuous outcomes (e.g., age).
  2. High alcohol consumption is defined as consumption exceeding the median level for the entire cohort (regardless of subgroup and prior to propensity matching) and consists of consuming ≥ 2 drinks per day.
  3. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as a frequency of physical activity that fell below the median for the study sample (i.e.,. < 17 days per month of exercising for ≥ 15 minutes per session).
  4. § High psychological distress is defined as the number of individuals whose distress scores, as measured using the Ontario Health Survey derived distress scale exceeding the median for the entire cohort (a score of >2) regardless of subgroup and prior to propensity matching).