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Table 4 Additional explanatory variables across the three districts.

From: Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India

Parameter Kalahandi Khorda Malkangiri
% of sampled household that reported illness last month 62.3% 61.6% 51.3%††† d
% of sampled household that had outpatient treatment last month 60.7% 59.8% 49.1%††† d
Outpatient cost of household that reported illness last month (± SE) (PPP$)a 56.65 (± 2.21) 71.74 (± 3.39) 34.78 (± 1.77) ***e
Income-proxy p.p.p.m. (± SE) (PPP$)b 29.94 (± 0.48) 36.16 (± 0.54) 31.35 (± 0.46) ***b)
Asset-index (± SE)c -0.70 (± 0.04) 1.36 (± 0.06) -0.62 (± 0.05) ***f
% of household with healthcare expenditures that reported borrowing from relatives and/or friends 15.6% 23.7% 14.2%††† g
  1. *** Significance of overall difference across the three districts p< 0.001 (ANOVA)
  2. ††† Significance of overall difference across the three districts p< 0.001 (Pearson Chi-square)
  3. a Average outpatient costs ± Standard Error, expressed in Purchasing Power Parity International Dollar.
  4. b Income is proxied as monthly per capita consumer expenditure through questions on many items of household expenditure and expressed in Purchasing Power Parity International Dollar.
  5. c Asset-index is a proxy for socioeconomic status based on various aspects of household assets. The index is calculated using a principal component analysis (PCA). SE = Standard Error
  6. d The difference between Kalahandi and Khorda is not significant for both indicators, p = .687 and p = .593 respectively Chi2
  7. e For each of the three districts the average cost is significantly different from any other district, p < .001 ANOVA
  8. f The difference in average asset-index between Kalahandi and Malkangiri is not significant (p = .163 ANOVA)
  9. g The difference in share between Kalahandi and Malkangiri is not significant, p = .282 Chi2