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Table 3 Factors that influence the risk of hardship financing for households with healthcare costs (logistic regression)

From: Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India

  Coefficient 95% Confidence interval
Socioeconomic and demographic parameters    
Log income-proxya 0.1197 -0.0694 0.3089
Asset-indexb -0.1176*** -0.1698 -0.0655
Employment household head    
   Salaried employee Reference   
   Self-employed in agriculture 0.8420** 0.3307 1.3533
   Self-employed in business/trade 0.7521** 0.2176 1.2866
   Daily wage labourer 0.9204** 0.4005 1.4404
   Not working 0.7824** 0.2145 1.3503
Education household head    
   No education Reference   
   Class 1-5 -0.0831 -0.2991 0.1329
   Class 6-10 -0.1719 -0.3930 0.0492
   Class 11 and higher -0.0340 -0.6023 0.5343
Castec    
   Scheduled Caste -0.1293 -0.4347 0.1761
   Scheduled Tribe 0.2173 -0.0632 0.4978
   Other Backward Caste -0.1570 -0.4255 0.1116
   General Caste Reference   
Household size 0.0370*** -0.0135 0.0876
Ratio infants (0-4) in household 0.2015 -0.4490 0.8520
Ratio elderly (60+) in household 0.1851 -0.3583 0.7284
Source of water    
   Own tap Reference   
   Shared tap 0.4873** 0.1733 0.8013
   Hand pump/Well 0.3540* 0.0286 0.6794
Type of toilet    
   Own flush toilet Reference   
   Own pit toilet 0.0556 -0.5192 0.6305
   Shared toilet 0.7037 -0.2623 1.6697
   No toilet -0.0607 -0.4942 0.3728
Morbidity parameters and health expenditures    
Log health expenditures last year 0.7232*** 0.6365 0.8099
Chronic illness in household    
   No chronic ill Reference   
   Chronic ill 0.3779** 0.1301 0.6257
Hospitalization in household last year    
   No hospitalization Reference   
   Hospitalization 0.7225*** 0.5335 0.9116
SHG membership in household    
   No SHG member Reference   
   SHG memberd 0.2184** 0.0536 0.3833
Location of residence    
   Khorda district Reference   
   Kalahandi district 1.3776*** 1.1376 1.6176
   Malkangiri district 0.1739 -0.0947 0.4424
Constant -9.5496*** -11.1226 -7.9766
N 4121   
Likelihood ratio test:    
   LR chi2(27) 1025.76   
   Prob > chi2 0.00   
Pearson goodness-of-fit test:    
   Pearson chi2(4091) 3930.87   
   Prob > chi2 0.96   
  1. *** Significance of coefficient p < 0.05 (Z-test)
  2. *** Significance of coefficient p < 0.01 (Z-test)
  3. *** Significance of coefficient p < 0.001 (Z-test)
  4. a Income is proxied as monthly per capita consumer expenditure through questions on many items of household expenditure and expressed in Purchasing Power Parity International Dollar.
  5. b Asset-index is a proxy for socioeconomic status based on various aspects of household assets. The index is calculated using a principal component analysis (PCA).
  6. c Caste is a proxy for socioeconomic status in India. Scheduled Castes (Dalits and those sometimes labelled "untouchable") are considered at the bottom of caste hierarchy. The list of Other Backward Castes is quite dynamic and changes from time to time in many states. All other castes are described here as General Caste.
  7. d A household was defined as SHG member if at least one person in the household was a member of a Self-Help Group (SHG) linked to one of the related NGOs.