Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographics & socioeconomic status

From: Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India

  Mean (± SE)a
Income-proxy p.p.p.m (PPP$)b 32.41 (± 0.29)*****
Asset-indexc 0.00 (± 0.03)*****
Household size 4.76 (± 0.02)*****
Ratio infants (0-4) in household 0.082 (± 0.002)****
Ratio elderly (60 and older) in household 0.075 (± 0.002)****
  % of total
Casted  
   Scheduled Tribe 30.0
   Scheduled Caste 22.3
   Other Backward Caste 31.3
   General Caste 16.5
Education level household head  
   No education 51.4
   Class 1-5 22.2
   Class 6-10 23.8
   Class 11 and higher 2.7
Occupation household head  
   Self-employed agriculture 38.7
   Self-employed business/trade 16.1
   Regular Salaried employee 4.6
   Daily wage labourer 30.8
   Not working 9.9
Source of drinking water  
   Own tap 9.9
   Shared tap 53.9
   Hand-pump/well 36.2
Toilet facility  
   Own flush toilet 4.4
   Own pit toilet 4.9
   Shared toilet 1.0
   No toilet 89.7
  1. a SE = Standard Error.
  2. b Income is proxied as monthly per capita consumer expenditure through questions on many items of household expenditure and expressed in Purchasing Power Parity International Dollar.
  3. c Asset-index is a proxy for socioeconomic status based on various aspects of household assets. The index is calculated using a principal component analysis (PCA).
  4. d Caste is a proxy for socioeconomic status in India. Scheduled Castes (Dalits and those sometimes labelled "untouchable") are considered at the bottom of caste hierarchy. The list of Other Backward Castes is quite dynamic and changes from time to time in many states. All other castes are described here as General Caste.