Ratio of surgical rate and willingness to undergo surgery by race minority group to white. Dunlop: Adjusting for demographics, health need and economic access (including health insurance, wealth and education). Black/Hispanic refers to all respondents; Black/Hispanic^ refers to respondents reporting an arthritis-related visit at baseline . Steel: Adjusting for covariates age, gender, wealth, employment, BMI ≥ 30, seen doctor ≥2 times in last 2 years, education, comorbidity, grandchild care, difficulty walking 1 block or more, married/cohabiting. Other category is defined as non-black and non-white . Ibrahim: AA African-American sample adjusting for age, level of education, annual income, radiologic severity of disease, WOMAC, geriatric depression score; AA* Adjusting for familiarity with surgery in addition to covariates for AA; AA** Adjusting for familiarity and expectations in addition to covariates for AA . Suarez-Almazor: Adjusted for age, gender, years of education, trust in physician, perception of efficacy, perception of risk, WOMAC, relative/friend with TKA. AA refers to African American sample .