Ratio of male to female surgery rate. *U.S. population-based study age ≥ 47. Patients with an arthritis-related visit to the doctor in the past two years at baseline. Adjusted for age, gender, race, comorbidities, functional limitations, income, wealth, insurance type, employment, and BMI ≥ 25 . ~ Rate over 18 months, from south of England study of patients aged ≥65. Unadjusted for confounders . #Surgical rates in public hospitals, population of England. One year incidence, adjusted for socio-economic and ethnicity mix of ward of residence . ^Respondents reporting an arthritis-related visit at baseline. Adjusting for demographics, health need and economic access (including health insurance, wealth and education) .