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Table 4 Sub group analysis of the studies that had 12 months data on glycated haemoglobin (changes from baseline to 12 months) with comparison for intervention (Int) and control (contr) groups and the heterogeneity (measured by I 2 ) of the analyses

From: Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

Analysis number / Outcome Effect measure N studies N participants (Int/contr) Difference (95%CI) P-valueA Heterogeneity (I2)
4.1 Ethnicity (Most non-Caucasian) Mean Diff 2 208/202 -0.49 (-0.97 to -0.01) 0.046 0.0
4.2 Theoretical model stated: Mean Diff 4 309/291 -0.43 (-0.79 to -0.08) 0.017 52.1
4.3 Educator stated: Diabetes specialist nurse only Mean Diff 3 217/219 -0.72 (-1.01 to -0.43) 0.000 35.8
4.4 Educator stated: Dietician only Mean Diff 2 168/159 -0.80 (-1.22 to -0.37) 0.000 15.2
4.5 Educator stated: Studies with more than 1 instructor Mean Diff 6 365/375 -0.27 (-0.53 to -0.02) 0.038 0.0
4.6 Delivered as Primary care intervention Mean Diff 6 564/572 -0.61 (-0.85 to -0.37) 0.000 48.6
4.7 Both groups glycated haemoglobin 7 % & above at baseline Mean Diff 8 553/532 -0.45 (-0.69 to -0.20) 0.000 24.1
4.8 Studies with follow-up sessions/phone calls before 12 months Mean Diff 2 78/85 -0.14 (-0.56 to 0.27) 0.500 0.0
4.9 Studies with follow-up sessions/phone calls after 12 months Mean Diff 2 153/161 -0.61 (-0.95 to -0.27) 0.000 10.7
4.10 Delivery of education programme completed in 1-5 months Mean Diff 4 359/339 -0.65 (-0.87 to -0.42) 0.000 0.0
4.11 Delivery of education programme completed in 6-10 months Mean Diff 3 104/124 -0.69 (-1.34 to -0.03) 0.040 79.7
4.12 Delivery of education programme completed in 12 months Mean Diff 4 287/290 -0.35 (-0.67 to -0.02) 0.035 0.0
4.13 First quartile hours of education programme (8 hours or less) Mean Diff 3 202/212 -0.55 (-0.86 to -0.23) 0.001 11.2
4.14 Second quartile hours of education programme (9 to 12 hours) Mean Diff 3 225/225 -0.39 (-0.81 to 0.03) 0.068 57.4
4.15 Third quartile hours of education programme (13 to 18 hours) Mean Diff 2 71/54 -0.69 (-1.74 to 0.37) 0.201 66.2
4.16 Fourth quartile hours of education programme (19 to 52 hours) Mean Diff 3 252/262 -0.73 (-1.08 to -0.38) 0.000 27.8
4.17 Attendance rate less than 70 % Mean Diff 3 132/124 -0.22 (-0.60 to 0.15) 0.243 0.0
4.18 Number of participants in each group session between 5 & 10 Mean Diff 3 124/135 -0.17 (-0.50 to 0.16) 0.321 0.0
4.19 Number of participants in each group session between 14 & 18 Mean Diff 3 264/249 -0.67 (-1.06 to -0.27) 0.001 28.8
4.20 Family & friends included in group sessions Mean Diff 3 194/201 -0.41 (-0.83 to 0.01) 0.053 0.0
4.21 Number of sessions (5 or less) Mean Diff 4 244/258 -0.52 (-0.75 to -0.28) 0.000 0.0
4.22 Number of sessions (6 to 10) Mean Diff 4 265/255 -0.76 (-1.04 to -0.48) 0.000 28.0
4.23 Number of sessions (11 or more) Mean Diff 3 241/240 -0.42 (-0.82 to -0.02) 0.040 0.0
  1. A. The P- value is calculated for the difference between the intervention and control group.