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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

From: Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

Author Year, Country, Number of participants recruited / at follow-up Mean age (SD or range) years Mean duration of diabetes (years) Mean (SD) % HbA1c at baseline (Intervention / Control) Inclusion criteria Intervention Follow-up (months or years) Risk of bias
Adolfsson 2007, Sweden 101/88 63.0 (9.0) 6.6 (4.1) 7.1 (1.0)/ 7.1 (0.8) Diabetes type 2 duration of at least 1 year, receiving dietary or oral anti-diabetes treatment 4-5 sessions of 2.5 hours each and one follow-up session within 28 weeks, (12.5 hours), by trained physicians and diabetes specialist nurses 1 year Low
Baradaran 2006, UK 118/80 58.5 (12.0) 9.0 (7.5) Not stated South Asians, type 2 diabetes, > 30 years of age 3 sessions of 2,5 hours + 25 minutes information video (7.5 hours), by dietician and podiatrist 6 months Moderate
Brown 2002, USA 256/230 54.1 (8.3) 7.9 (6.4) 11.8 (3.0)/11.8 (3.0) Mexican Americans 52 hours over 12 months (3 mths of weekly 2 hrs sessions, 6 mths of biweekly 2 hrs sessions, 3 mths of monthly 2 hrs sessions), by nurse, dietician & community worker 1 year High
35-70 years, diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, 2 measures of FBG > 140 mg/dl, taken insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents for >1 year
Cabrera-Pivaral 2004, Mexico, 49/49 58.0 (10.6) 10.0 (10.4) Not stated Hispanics, obese type 2 diabetics 82 hours over 9 months (2 hours/week), by social worker and nutritionist 9 months High
Clancy 2007, USA 186/159 56 (8.9) Not stated 9.3 (2.0)/ 8.9 (2.1) African Americans with poorly controlled diabetes type 2 (HbA1c > 8.0 %), 1 group visit/month for 12 months, 2 hours/visit (24 hours), by physician and registered nurse. 1 year Moderate
Cooper 2003, UK 89/Not stated 58 (30-73) 6 (1-30) 7.9 (1.7)/ 7.0 (1.6) Type 2 diabetics, oral hypoglycaemic agents treatment 8 weekly sessions for 2 hours (16 hours), by diabetes specialist nurses 1 year Moderate
Deakin 2006, UK 314/291 61.6 (10.4) 6.7 (6.6) 7.7 (1.6)/ 7.7 (1.6) Adults with type 2 diabetes identified from practice registers using WHO criteria 2 hours per week for 6 weeks (12 hours), by diabetes research dietician/diabetes educator 14 months Low
Heller 1988, UK 87/75 56.4 (8.5) Not stated 12.3 (2.8)/ 12.7 (2.5) Newly diagnosed age 30-75 yrs 4.5 hr for 3 consecutive weeks, 1.5 hr at both 3 & 6 months (7.5 hours), by diabetes nurses and a dietician 1 year Moderate
Holtrop 2002, USA 132/88 61.5 (No SD or range) Not stated 8.0 (1,34)/ 7.7 (1,34) More than 40 years, female type 2 diabetics, HbA1c > 7 % in past 6 months Six weekly 1 1/2 hour sessions (9 hours), by trained lay health advisors 6 months Moderate
Hornsten 2004, Sweden 104/99 63.5 (9.2) Not stated 5.7 (0.8)/ 5.8 (0.7) Aged 40 - 80 years, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes during the previous 2 years. Oral, guts and/or insulin, and diet treatment 10 group sessions, 2 hours/session for 9 months (20 hours), by diabetes nurses 1 year Moderate
Lozano 1999, Spain 243/234 64.3 (11.2) 8.6 (8.3) 6.6 (1.4)/ 6.7 (1.3) Type 2 diabetes 1 hr 30 min/day for two consecutive days (3 hours), and further education in year two, by nurses 2 years Moderate
Lujan 2007, USA 149/140 Not stated Not stated 8.2 (2.2)/ 7.7 (1.5) 40 years of age or older, Self reported Mexican-American ethnicity, Diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for at least 1 year, Taking or having taken hypoglycemic agents within the past 6 months. 2 hour long sessions for 8 weeks (16 hours) plus biweekly telephone, by Promotoras (Community lay workers) 6 months High
Mayer-Davies 2004, USA 152/ Not stated 60.4(8.7) 11.0 (9.4) 9.7 (2.8)/9.6 (2.9) Clinical diagnosis of diabetes, BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater during the previous calendar year Intense: 1 hour weekly for four mths, biweekly for two mths and once every moth for six mths, by Nutritionist 1 year High
Reimbursable: Four 1 hour sessions (3 group sessions & 1 individual session) over 12 months, by Nutritionist
McKibbin 2006, USA 64/57 54.0 (9.3) 8.7 (6.2) 7.4 (2.9)/ 6.7 (2.1) Older schizophrenic patients. Diet, Oral agents, and Insulin treatment 24 weekly 90 minute sessions for 6 months (36 hours). 6 months Moderate
Pennings-van der 1991, Netherlands 118/83 64.4 (9.6) 10.9 (7.6) 8.0 (1.8)/ 7.6 (1.5) Diabetes mellitus type Il treated with diet and/or oral agents 7 half-day meetings in 7 weeks, by physicians, dieticians, diabetologist, diabetes nurse 8 months High
Rosal 2005, USA 25/Not stated 62.6 (8.7) 8.2 (5.6) 7.7 (1.2)/ 9.3 (1.8) Hispanics. Diet, Oral hypoglycemic agents, Insulin, Alternative medicines treatment Initial 1 hour individual session, followed by 10 weekly 2.5 to 3 hour group sessions and two 15 minute individual sessions that occurred immediately prior to the group session (30 hours), by Diabetes nurse, Nutritionist and an Assistant 6 months High
Sarkadi 2004, Sweden 77/64 66.4 (9.3) 4.3 (4.0) 6.5 (1.5)/ 6.4 (1.5) Type 2 diabetes, treated with insulin only for 2 year or less Meetings every months over 12 months, by Pharmacists assisted by Diabetes nurse specialists the two first meetings 2 years Moderate
Toobert 2003/2007, USA 279/215 60.9 (7.9) 8.3 (7.7) 7.4 (1.3)/ 7.4 (1.5) Female, Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes for at least 6 months, Postmenopausal, 3 days non-residential retreat, followed by 4-hour weekly meetings for 6 months 6 months [49]; 24 months ([50]) Moderate
Trento 1998/2001/2002/2004, Italy 112/84 61.5 (30-80) 9.6 (1-39) 7.2 (1.3)/ 7.3 (1.4) Treated with diet or oral hypoglycaemic agents, followed in clinic >1 year Every 3 months for 1 year (4 x 60/70 min), and 15-30 min. individually for those who developed specific problems[51]; every 3 months for 2 years (1 hour x 8 = 8 hr/2 yr) ([52]); every 3 months for 2 years and 7 sessions in year 3 +4 (total 15 hrs/4 yrs) ([53]); every 3 months for 2 years and 7 sessions in year 3and 4 (total 15 hrs/4 yrs) and started again in year 5 ([54]), by Two physicians and educationist 1 year [51], 2 years ([52]), 4 years ([53]), 5 years ([54]) Moderate
Wattana 2007, Thailand 157/147 56.8 (10.1) 6.2 (5.0) 8.1 (1.9)/ 8.1 (2.0) 35 years or older, Diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for at least 6 months, Fasting plasma glucose level >140 mg for at least 2 follow up visits, Asian participants. Oral hypoglycaemic agents treatment 120 minutes small group diabetes education class, 4 small group discussions (90 mins/group), two 45 minutes home visits by the researcher 6 months Moderate
Zapotoczky 2001, Austria 36/36 57.5 (9.8) Not stated 8.6 (1.6)/ 8.0 (1.5) Not stated 1.5 hours monthly for 10 months (15 hours) delivered by a dietician 1 years High