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Table 3 Results of regression, logistic or cumulative logistic analysis showing the regression coefficients (β), odds ratios (OR) and cumulative odd ratios (COR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for health and social care costs and social care utilization

From: Factors associated with the utilization and costs of health and social services in frail elderly patients

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  Logarithm adjusted health care costs Social care utilization Cost of social care
  Continuous variable    Categorized into groups; yes, no    Categorized into groups; under 1500, 1500-6000 or over 6000 €/year   
  n = 732     n = 732     n = 492    
  Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
β (Cl 95%) β (Cl 95%) OR (Cl 95%) OR (Cl 95%) COR (Cl 95%) COR (Cl 95%)
Patient level             
Rehabilitation             
  Intervention 0.09 (-0.08, 0.26) 0.09 (-0.08, 0.26) 0.86 (0.62, 1.18) 0.88 (0.62, 1.26) 1.09 (0.78, 1.52) 1.13 (0.78, 1.64)
  Control 0   0   1   1   1   1  
Gender             
  Male -0.11 (-0.36, 0.14)    0.86 (0.54, 1.36)    1.70 (1.02, 2.82)* 1.43 (0.81, 2.55)
  Female 0     1     1   1  
Age (five years) 0.02 (-0.04, 0.09)    1.41 (1.23, 1.60)* 1.30 (1.12, 1.51)* 1.12 (0.98, 1.28)   
Location of residence             
  Urban 0.20 (0.02, 0.39)* 0.08 (-0.11, 0.28) 2.02 (1.4, 2.91)* 1.45 (0.96, 2.19) 1.92 (1.29, 2.88)* 1.19 (0.75, 1.88)
  Rural 0   0   1   1   1   1  
Living conditions †             
  Home -0.34 (-0.70, 0.01)* -0.15 (-0.51, 0.22)      0.03 (0.01, 0.06)* 0.06 (0.03, 0.14)*
  Home with home help -0.05 (-0.40, 0.30) 0.00 (-0.34, 0.35)      0.37 (0.19, 0.70) 0.48 (0.25, 0.95)
  Sheltered housing or residential home 0   0       1   1  
Living alone             
  Not alone -0.26 (0.45, -0.07)* -0.14 (-0.36, 0.07) 0.33 (0.23, 0.48)* 0.41 (0.27, 0.62)* 0.29 (0.19, 0.45)* 0.48 (0.28, 0.80)*
  Alone 0   0   1   1   1   1  
Availability of informal caregiver             
  Not available 0.18 (-0.11, 0.46)    1.36 (0.80, 2.29)* 1.24 (0.68, 2.27)* 1.58 (0.89, 2.81)   
  Occasionally 0.26 (0.02, 0.50)    2.02 (1.26, 3.22) 2.02 (1.17, 3.46) 1.45 (0.91, 2.31)   
  When needed shortly 0.14 (-0.07, 0.35)    1.95 (1.30, 2.91) 1.68 (1.06, 2.65) 1.46 (0.96, 2.21)   
  As long as needed      1   1   1    
Receiving informal help             
  No 0.15 (-0.05, 0.36)    1.33 (0.89, 1.98)    2.03 (1.35, 3.06)* 1.79 (1.12, 2.86)*
  Yes 0     1     1   1  
Home care allowance             
  No 0.09 (-0.33, 0.51)    0.99 (0.45, 2.19)    3.62 (1.54, 8.50)* 2.80 (1.01, 7.76)*
  Yes 0     1     1   1  
Self-assessed change in health during preceding year             
  Better -0.25 (-0.59, 0.08)* -0.16 (-0.50, 0.18) 2.82 (1.27, 6.24)* 3.81 (1.54, 9.40)* 1.07 (0.60, 1.93)   
  Same -0.30 (-0.50, -0.01) -0.13 (-0.34, 0.08) 0.93 (0.65, 1.34) 1.22 (0.79, 1.90) 1.32 (0.89, 1.95)   
  Worse 0   0   1   1   1    
IADL(SD)1 0.11 (0.02, 0.19)* -0.01 (-0.04, 0.02) 1.44 (1.21, 1.72)* 1.29 (1.02, 1.64)* 1.92 (1.59, 2.31)* 1.60 (1.24, 2.06)*
GDS(SD)2 0.13 (0.04, 0.22)* 0.00 (-0.04, 0.04) 1.46 (1.22, 1.74)* 1.28 (1.04, 1.58)* 1.27 (1.06, 1.51)* 1.15 (0.93, 1.42)
MMSE(SD)3 0.03 (-0.06, 0.12)    0.74 (0.62, 0.88)* 0.81 (0.67, 0.98)* 0.82 (0.70, 0.97)* 0.90 (0.75, 1.08)
15D(SD)4 -0.26 (-0.34, -0.17)* -1.90 (-2.94, 0.85)* 0.72 (0.61, 0.86)* 1.00 (0.78, 1.27) 0.84 (0.71, 1.00)* 1.19 (0.96, 1.48)
FIM(SD)5 -0.18 (-0.27, -0.09)* -0.01 (-0.03, 0.00) 0.51 (0.41, 0.63)* 0.63 (0.48, 0.82)* 0.54 (0.44, 0.65)* 0.77 (0.61, 0.98)*
Municipality level             
Combined health and social sectors in municipal             
  Yes 0.07 (-0.10, 0.25)    1.09 (0.68, 1.76)    0.65 (0.42, 1.00)   
  No 0     1     1    
  1. *= P<0.05.
  2. Living conditions is not included in the models of social care utilization because it is logically too close to the despondence variable.
  3. 1 Coefficient corresponding change of standard error. The higher IADL scores indicates more difficulties.
  4. 2 Coefficient corresponding change of standard error. The higher GDS scores indicates more more depressiveness.
  5. 3 Coefficient corresponding change of standard error. The higher MMSE scores indicates less demented.
  6. 4 Coefficient corresponding change of standard error. The higher 15D scores indicates better health.
  7. 5 Coefficient corresponding change of standard error. The higher FIM scores indicates highest level of independence.
  8. Costs of the utilization of health and social services.