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Table 7 Measures of improvement in COPD community-based services*

From: Development of a community-based model for respiratory care services

  No. of model elements Successful combinations
1 2 3 4 No. Model Element
Knowledge 2 sig (Emery et al. 1998; Goransson et al. 2003) 2 n/s (Brough et al. 1982; Cockcroft et al. 1987) 2 sig (Hermiz et al. 2002; Hernandez et al. 2003) n/a n/a 1 Self-management
      2 Self-management
       Delivery system design
Dyspnoea 1 n/s (Zimmerman et al. 1996) 2 n/s (Hermiz et al. 2002; Monninkhof et al. 2003) 1 sig (Neff et al. 2003) 1 n/s (Bourbeau et al 2003) n/a 3 Self-management
       Delivery system design
       Decision support
Quality of life 4 n/s (Emery et al. 1998; Weinberger et al. 2002; Cockcroft et al. 1987; Littlejohns et al. 1991) 2 n/s (Hermiz et al. 2002; Monninkhof et al. 2003) 1 sig (Neff et al. 2003) 1 n/s (Bourbeau et al. 2003) n/a 3 Self-management
       Delivery system design
       Decision support
Lung function n/a n/a n/a 1 sig (Rea et al. 2004) 4 Self-management
       Delivery system design
       Decision support
       Clinical information system
Performance n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Mortality 3 n/s (Farrero et al. 2001; Cockcroft et al. 1987; Littlejohns et al. 1991) 3 n/s (Monninkhof et al. 2003; Hernamdez et al. 2002) n/a 1 n/s (Rea et al. 2004) n/a n/a
Health care use n/a 4 sig (Hermiz et al. 2002; Hernandez et al. 2002; Steinel and Madigan 2003; Haggarty et al. 1991) 2 sig (Neff et al. 2003; Bourbeau et al. 2003) n/a 2 Self-management
       Delivery system design
      2 Delivery system design
       Decision support
      3 Self-management
       Delivery system design
       Decision support
Hospitalisation 1 sig (Farrero et al. 2001)
3 n/s (Cockcroft et al. 1987; Littlejohns et al. 1991; Weinberger et al. 2002)
4 sig (Hermiz et al. 2002; Hernandez et al. 2003; Steinel and Madigan 2003; Haggerty et al. 1991) 2 sig (Bourbeau et al. 2003; Neff et al. 2003) 2 sig (Barnett 2003; Rea et al. 2004) 1 Self-management
      2 Self-management
       Delivery system design
      2 Delivery system design
       Decision support
      3 Self-management
       Delivery system design
       Decision support
      4 Self-management
       Delivery system design
       Decision support
       Clinical information systems
Length of stay 3 n/s (Cockcroft et al. 1987; Littlejohns et al. 1991; Farrero et al. 2001) 2 sig (Hernandez et al. 2002; Steinel and Madigan 2003) 2 sig (Bourbeau et al. 2003; Neff et al. 2003) n/a 2 Self-management
       Delivery system design
      2 Delivery system design
       Decision support
      3 Self-management
       Delivery system design
       Decision support
  1. *Adapted from Adams et al. 2007 [33].