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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and comparisons between sites

From: Informing the development of services supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health conditions: a mixed method study of community based mental health initiatives in England

Variable Label LO (peer groups) (n = 38) SO (personal plans) n = 41) NO (community arts) (n = 42) Total (n = 121) Significance
Demographics
Age Mean (SD) 36.3 (10.8) 44.2 (12.5) 43.7 (10.7) 41.5 (11.8) F (2, 117) = 5.9,
Min – Max 18 – 61 24 – 64 19 – 65 18 – 65 p = .003
Gender Female 28 (74%) 28 (68%) 26 (62%) 82 (68%) X 2 = 1.3, df = 2, p = .529
Ethnic group White-British 24 (63%) 41 (100%) 36 (86%) 101 (84%) x 2 = 20.3, df = 6, p = .002
White-Other 10 (26%)   5 (12%) 15 (12%)  
Other 3 (8%)   1 (2%) 4 (3%)  
No. dependents 0 27 (71%) 36 (88%) 27 (64%) 90 (74%) Kruskall Wallis
1 4 (11%) 3 (7%) 6 (14%) 13 (11%) x 2 = 6.7, df = 2, p = .036
2 3 (8%) 1 (2%) 4 (10%) 8 (7%)  
3 + 4 (11%) 1 (2%) 5 (12%) 10 (8%)  
Marital status Single 28 (74%) 17 (42%) 22 (52%) 67 (55%)  
Married/co 3 (8%) 11 (27%) 11 (26%) 25 (21%) x 2 = 9.8, df = 4, p = .044
Sep/div 7 (18%) 13 (32%) 9 (21%) 29 (24%)  
Highest education GCSE 16 (42%) 22 (54%) 24 (57%) 62 (51%) x 2 = 6.4, df = 4, p = .172
Above GCSE 22 (58%) 19 (46%) 16 (38%) 57 (47%)  
Living situation Living alone 25 (66%) 20 (49%) 24 (57%) 69 (57%) x 2 = 2.3, df = 2, p = .312
Accommodation Supported accom 24 (63%) 24 (59%) 24 (57%) 72 (60%) x 2 = .3, df = 2, p = .851
Employment status Unemployed 27 (71%) 20 (49%) 31 (74%) 78 (65%) x 2 = 6.7, df = 2, p = .035
Service Use       
Psychiatric admission in previous 9 months Yes 9 (24%) 21 (51%) 12 (29%) 42 (35%) x 2 = 7.7, df = 2, p = .022
Attended A&E for psychiatric reason in previous 9 months Yes 17 (45%) 2 (5%) 2 (5%) 21 (17%) x 2 = 18.1, df = 2, p < .001
Used Crisis/Home Treatment team in previous 9 months Yes 8 (21%) 7 (17%) 8 (19%) 23 (19%) x 2 = .4, df = 2, p = .814
Psychiatric history       
Number of life-time psychiatric admissions Never 17 (45%) 10 (25%) 12 (29%) 39 (33%) x 2 = 0.1, df = 8, p = .173
  1 – 2 8 (21%) 11 (28%) 8 (19%) 27 (23%)  
  3 – 5 6 (16%) 7 (18%) 15 (36%) 28 (23%)  
  6 – 10 5 (13%) 9 (23%) 3 (7%) 17 (14%)  
  11+ 2 (5%) 3 (8%) 4 (10%) 9 (8%)  
Time since first contact with services (years) Mean (SD) 13.8 (9.6) 16.6 (13.0) 13.6 (10.2) 14.7 (11.0) F (2, 117) = .9, p = .401
  Min – Max .25 – 40 .25 – 46 .08 – 37 .08 – 46  
Primary Diagnosis Personality disorder 16 (42%) 4 (10%) 1 (2%) 21 (17%) x 2 =39.9, df = 10, p = .001
  Schizophrenia 1 (3%) 12 (29%) 7 (17%) 20 (17%)  
  Bipolar 2 (5%) 4 (10%) 8 (19%) 14 (12%)  
  Anxiety/depression 16 (42%) 18 (44%) 17 (41%) 51 (42%)  
  Other 1 (3%) 2 (5%) 7 (17%) 10 (8%)  
  Not known 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%) 1 (1%)  
  Mean (SD)     2.4 F (2, 118) = .3, p = .749
Number of psychotropic medications Min – Max 2.2 (1.6) 2.4 (1.6) 2.5 (1.2) (1.2)  
   0 – 5 0 – 6 1 – 5 0 – 6  
On typical anti-psychotics Yes 4 (11%) 9 (22%) 6 (14%) 19 (16%) x 2 = 2.0, df = 2, p = .360
On atypical anti-psychotics Yes 10 (26%) 20 (49%) 18 (43%) 48 (40%) x 2 = 4.4, df = 2, p = .109
On mood stabilisers Yes 2 (5%) 6 (15%) 5 (12%) 13 (11%) x 2 = 1.9, df = 2, p = .387
Anti-depressant Yes 30 (79%) 26 (63%) 35 (83%) 91 (75%) x 2 = 4.8, df = 2, p = .089
Depot injections Yes 1 (3%) 7 (17%) 1 (2%) 9 (7%) x 2 = 8.4, df = 2, p = .015
Medication taken as prescribed Yes 23 (62%) 34 (83%) 30 (71%) 87 (72%) x 2 = 9.4, df = 6, p = .153
  Partially 11 (29%) 5 (12%) 9 (21%) 5 (21%)  
  No 1 (3%) 1 (2%) 3 (7%) 5 (4%)  
Alcohol use No problem 21 (55%) 36 (88%) 33 (79%) 90 (74%) x 2 = 26.0, df = 6, p < .001
  At risk 9 (24%) 2 (5%) 9 (21%) 20 (17%)  
  Harmful 8 (21%) 1 (2%) 0 9 (7%)  
Drug use No problem 30 (79%) 37 (90%) 40 (95%) 107 (88%) x 2 = 12.7, df = 6, p = .048
  Receiving help 6 (16%) 2 (5%) 2 (5%) 10 (8%)  
  Harmful 2 (5%) 0 0 2 (2%)  
Psychological measures
Quality of Life Mean (SD) 46.7 (20.8) 58.1 (23.6) 61.2 (21.4) 55.6 (22.7) (F (2, 117) = 4.8, p = .010),
Min – Max 9 – 85 12 – 100 14 – 95 9 – 100  
Empowerment Mean (SD) 69.3 (8.8) 74.6 (12.9) 74.0 (11.3) 72.7 (11.3) (F (2, 117) = 2.6, p = .081)
Min – Max 52 – 90 33 – 106 41 – 96 33 – 106  
Mental Health Confidence Mean (SD) 3.0 (1.0) 3.6 (1.0) 3.5 (.9) 3.37 (1.0) (F (2, 117) = 5.0, p = .008),
Min – Max 1 – 6 2 – 5 2 – 5 1 – 6  
CORE wellbeing Mean (SD) 19.5 (3.9) 18.2 (5.0) 20.3 (5.4) 19.3 (4.9) (F (2, 118) = 1.9, p = .148)
Min – Max 10 – 28 10 – 35 10 – 33 10 – 35  
CORE problems and symptoms Mean (SD) 28.3 (8.1) 16.5 (8.8) 21.2 (9.4) 21.8 (10.0) (F (2, 118) = 17.9, p < .001),
Min – Max 7 – 38 2 – 33 3 – 38 2 – 38  
CORE functioning Mean (SD) 19.8 (3.8) 17.8 (3.1) 19.1 (4.4) 18.9 (3.9) (F (2, 118) = 2.9, p = .059)
Min – Max 11 – 29 11 – 25 6 – 28 6 – 29  
CORE risk Mean (SD) 14.2 (8.3) 5.3 (7.5) 7.3 (7.8) 8.9 (8.7) (F (2, 118) = 14.6, p < .001)
Min – Max 0 – 30 0 – 25 0 – 28 0 – 30  
CORE non-risk Mean (SD) 23.3 (4.5) 17.1 (4.7) 19.8 (5.3) 20.0 (5.4) (F (2, 118) = 16.3, p < .001)
Min – Max 12 – 32 10 – 28 11 – 33 10 – 33  
CORE clinical score Mean (SD) 21.7 (4.6) 15.2 (4.7) 17. 8 (5.3) 18.1 (5.5) (F (2, 118) = 18.4, p < .001)
  Min – Max 10 – 31 8 – 27 9 – 31 8 – 31