Skip to main content

Table 1 Definition and descriptive statistics of independent variables

From: Adverse selection in a community-based health insurance scheme in rural Africa: Implications for introducing targeted subsidies

Variables Definition Percentage (%) or Mean
2004 2005 2006 2007 Average
n a No. of individuals 2878 4360 5725 5517 -
Health Status       
Sick 1 if sick b; 0 otherwise* 17.9 19.2 19.4 19.3 19.1
Age (years)       
≤ 15 Age 15 years or less 45.4 42.5 40.5 38.4 41.2
16-59 Age between 16–59 years* 47.6 50.8 52.2 53.7 51.6
60+ Age 60 years or older 6.9 6.7 7.4 7.9 7.3
Education       
Literate 1 if can read/write; 0 otherwise* 31.7 37.2 40.8 43.8 39.4
Subsidized c       
Subsidy 1 if given subsidy in insurance premium; 0 otherwise* - - - 18.3 5.3
Household size       
Size Number of individuals in the household 11.9 11.0 12.1 12.4 11.9
SES       
LowSES Household SES below 33.33th percentile* 34.0 32.1 33.4 33.3 33.1
MidSES Household SES between 33.33th and 66.67th percentile 33.5 32.9 33.2 33.4 33.2
HighSES Household SES above 66.67th percentile 32.5 35.0 33.3 33.3 33.6
Year       
2004 Year 2004* - - - - 15.6
2005 Year 2005 - - - - 23.6
2006 Year 2006 - - - - 31.0
2007 Year 2007 - - - - 29.8
  1. a Insurance was offered in a phased manner. From 2006 everyone was eligible for insurance.
  2. b Individual was considered sick if (s)he had an illness for at least 3 months at the time of the survey.
  3. c Subsidy was offered only in year 2007.
  4. * Reference category for multivariate analysis.