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Table 2 Profiles of clinical sub-groups with significantly longer ALC stays, ALC patients waiting for nursing home admission, fiscal 2010-2011

From: Acute care inpatients with long-term delayed-discharge: evidence from a Canadian health region

  Morbid Obesity (N = 69) Stroke (N = 426) Psychiatric Diagnosis (N = 311) Abusive Behaviours (N = 115)
% (CI) N % (CI) N % (CI) N % (CI) N
Demographic Characteristics
Age (mean) 75.2 (±1.3) 69 80.0 (±0.5) 426 76.3 (±0.7) 311 81.8 (±0.8) 115
Age
< 65 15.9 (±11.3) 11 9.2 (±3.6) 39 17.4 (±5.5) 54 6.1 (±5.7) 7
65 – 74 21.7 (±12.8) 15 15.0 (±4.5) 64 16.7 (±5.5) 52 13.9 (±8.3) 16
75 – 84 43.5 (±15.4) 30 39.0 (±6.1) 166 39.6 (±7.1) 123 33.0 (±11.3) 38
85 – 94 18.8 (±12.1) 13 34.0 (±5.9) 145 24.1 (±6.2) 75 43.5 (±11.9) 50
≥ 95 0.0 (±0.0) 0 2.8 (±2.1) 12 2.3 (±2.2) 7 3.5 (±3.5) 4
Gender
Male 31.9 (±1.9) 22 46.9 (±0.9) 200 38.9 (±0.9) 121 58.2 (±1.8) 67
Lived alone 29.0 (±14.1) 20 36.2 (±6.0) 154 38.9 (±7.1) 121 33.0 (±11.3) 38
Lived in
Private residence 33.3 (±14.6) 23 57.5 (±6.2) 245 46.6 (±7.3) 145 61.7 (±11.7) 71
Private residence (HC.) 42.0 (±15.3) 29 29.3 (±5.7) 125 29.9 (±6.7) 93 27.0 (±10.7) 31
Board/assisted/group home 8.7 (±8.7) 6 8.2 (±3.4) 35 13.8 (±5.0) 43 7.0 (±6.1) 8
Residential Care 13.0 (±10.4) 9 3.3 (±2.2) 14 5.8 (±3.4) 18 2.6 (±2.6) 3
Other 2.9 (±2.9) 2 1.6 (±1.6) 7 3.9 (±2.8) 12 1.7 (±1.7) 2
Primary Caregiver Status
No Caregiver 1.5 (±1.5) 1 1.2 (±1.2) 5 2.3 (±2.2) 7 2.6 (±2.6) 3
Caregiver lived with client 56.5 (±15.4) 39 56.6 (±6.2) 241 66.9 (±6.9) 208 58.3 (±11.8) 67
Caregiver is a spouse 29.0 (±14.1) 20 27.5 (±5.6) 117 21.5 (±6.0) 67 34.8 (±11.4) 40
Is a child or child-in-law 49.3 (±15.5) 34 54.7 (±6.2) 233 51.5 (±7.3) 160 44.4 (±11.9) 51
Caregiver distress1 30.4 (±14.3) 21 35.0 (±6.0) 149 32.5 (±6.8) 101 56.5 (±11.9) 65
Clinical Characteristics
Cognitive Impairment2 31.9 (±14.5) 22 57.0 (±6.2) 243 48.2 (±7.3) 150 81.7 (±9.3) 94
Potential Delirium
Last 7 days3 4.4 (±4.4) 3 5.9 (±2.9) 25 7.1 (±3.7) 22 17.4 (±9.1) 20
Last 90 days4 8.7 (±8.7) 6 26.8 (±5.5) 114 24.1 (±6.2) 75 48.7 (±12.0) 56
ADL Impairment5 82.6 (±11.8) 57 75.8 (±5.3) 323 67.2 (±6.9) 209 73.9 (±10.5) 85
Communication
Difficulty making self understood 17.4 (±11.8) 12 44.2 (±6.2) 188 32.8 (±6.9) 102 54.8 (±12.0) 63
Difficulty understanding others 23.2 (±13.1) 16 42.7 (±6.2) 182 35.7 (±7.0) 111 61.7 (±11.7) 71
Behaviours6
Any7 14.5 (±10.9) 10 25.6 (±5.4) 109 28.9 (±6.6) 90 100.0 (±0.0) 115
Abusive 2.9 (±2.9) 2 8.2 (±3.4) 35 8.7 (±4.1) 27 100.0 (±0.0) 115
Disruptive 4.4 (±4.4) 3 5.4 (±2.8) 23 9.3 (±4.2) 29 30.4 (±11.1) 35
Wandering 2.9 (±2.9) 2 7.5 (±3.3) 32 5.8 (±3.4) 18 31.3 (±11.1) 36
Psychiatric Diagnosis8 27.5 (±13.9) 19 23.9 (±5.3) 102 100.0 (±0.0) 311 23.5 (±10.2) 27
Psychotropic Medications8
Anxiolytics 47.8 (±15.5) 33 33.6 (±5.9) 143 64.3 (±7.0) 200 35.7 (±11.5) 41
Antidepressants 23.2 (±13.1) 16 23.7 (±5.3) 101 37.3 (±7.1) 116 29.6 (±11.0) 34
Antipsychotics 10.1 (±9.4) 7 26.1 (±5.5) 111 40.8 (±7.2) 127 55.7 (±11.9) 64
Hypnotic 15.9 (±11.4) 11 17.1 (±4.7) 73 27.0 (±6.5) 84 28.7 (±10.9) 33
Fractures8
Hip 5.8 (±5.8) 4 9.2 (±3.6) 39 10.0 (±4.4) 31 13.0 (±8.1) 15
Other 7.3 (±7.3) 5 11.0 (±3.9) 47 15.4 (±5.3) 48 10.4 (±7.3) 12
Stroke8 29.0 (±14.1) 20 100.0 (±0.0) 426 32.8 (±6.9) 102 30.4 (±11.1) 35
Morbid Obesity 100.0 (±0.0) 69 4.7 (±2.6) 20 6.1 (±3.5) 19 1.7 (±1.7) 2
Medically Complex9 24.6 (±13.4) 17 12.2 (±4.1) 52 13.2 (±4.9) 41 8.7 (±6.8) 10
Unstable Health10 33.3 (±14.6) 23 22.3 (±5.2) 95 21.9 (±6.0) 68 36.5 (±11.6) 42
Neurological Conditions
ADRD11 24.6 (±13.4) 17 46.2 (±6.2) 197 44.4 (±7.3) 138 73.9 (±10.5) 85
Head trauma 1.5 (±1.5) 1 2.8 (±2.1) 12 4.2 (±2.9) 13 7.8 (±6.5) 9
Hemiplegia/Hemiparesis 5.8 (±5.8) 4 15.3 (±4.5) 65 5.5 (±3.3) 17 3.5 (±3.5) 4
Multiple sclerosis 2.9 (±2.9) 2 0.5 (±0.5) 2 1.6 (±1.6) 5 0.0 (±0.0) 0
Parkinsonism 7.3 (±7.3) 5 4.5 (±2.6) 19 7.7 (±3.9) 24 7.0 (±6.1) 8
Discharge Destination
Residential care 15.9 (±11.4) 11 17.4 (±4.7) 74 14.5 (±5.1) 45 20.0 (±9.6) 23
Home (with Home Care Services) 23.2 (±13.2) 16 11.9 (±4.0) 51 13.8 (±5.0) 43 13.9 (±8.3) 16
Transfers
Complex Care (waiting for placement) 57.9 (±15.3) 40 66.9 (±5.9) 285 65.6 (±6.9) 204 58.2 (±11.9) 67
Other 1.5 (±1.5) 1 0.5 (±0.5) 2 1.3 (±1.3) 4 0.9 (±0.9) 1
Died 1.5 (±1.5) 1 2.8 (±2.1) 12 3.9 (±2.8) 12 5.2 (±5.2) 6
Other 0.0 (±0.0) 0 0.5 (±0.5) 2 1.0 (±1.0) 3 1.7 (±1.7) 2
  1. Note: All confidence intervals are 99% (alpha = 0.01) unless otherwise specified.
  2. . ‘HC’ = Home Care.
  3. 1 Primary caregiver expresses feelings of distress, anger or depression.
  4. 2 Based on the interRAI Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) levels ≥3. Equivalent to 15 - 1 MMSE [37, 38].
  5. 3 Sudden or new onset/change in mental function over last 7 days (from assessment date).
  6. 4 In last 90 days (from assessment date) person has become agitated/disoriented such that their safety is endangered or requires protection.
  7. 5 Based on the interRAI ADL Hierarchy Scale levels ≥3 [43].
  8. 6 Any such occurrence in the last 3 days.
  9. 7 Any of: Abusive (physically or verbally), Disruptive (incl. Socially inappropriate), wandering, and resisting care.
  10. 8 Doctor has indicated is present and affects patients status, requires treatment, or symptom management.
  11. 9 Any receipt of the following in the last 7 days: respiratory treatments, haemodialysis, or tracheotomy care.
  12. 10 Based on the interRAI Changes in Health, End-stage Disease, and Signs and Symptoms (CHESS) Scale [42], levels ≥3.
  13. 11 ADRD = Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias.