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Table 6 The amount paid out-of-pocket for outpatient and inpatient health care services (excluding informal payments)

From: Informal payments and intra-household allocation of resources for health care in Albania

  Outpatient service Inpatient service
  Nuclear household Extended household Difference (nuclear- extended) Nuclear household Extended household Difference (nuclear- extended)
Spouse of the household 0.107 (0.252) 0.236 (0.324) -0.129 -0.143 (0.577) 0.456 (0.580) -0.599
Children of the household -0.697*** (0.208) -0.361*** (0.131) -0.336 -0.100 (0.506) -0.018 (0.341) -0.081
(Household head)           
Number of children into the household -0.016 (0.019) 0.022 (0.022) -0.038 -0.095** (0.042) -0.020 (0.049) -0.075
Sudden illness -0.129*** (0.049) -0.085 (0.054) -0.044 0.166 (0.133) -0.232 (0.147) 0.397**
Year of the survey (year 2002 = 0; year 2005 = 1) -0.106** (0.050) -0.024 (0.057) -0.082 0.094 (0.120) 0.096 (0.137) -0.002
Health insurance -0.253*** (0.053) -0.065 (0.058) -0.189*** 0.006 (0.125) 0.072 (0.142) -0.066
ln income per capita 0.011 (0.023) 0.014 (0.026) -0.003 0.046 (0.056) 0.014 (0.056) 0.033
Living in rural area 0.199*** (0.055) 0.233*** (0.060) -0.035 -0.023 (0.129) -0.028 (0.149) 0.005
Method to raise money - borrowing money 0.206*** (0.047) 0.074 (0.054) 0.132* -0.170 (0.112) -0.081 (0.127) -0.089
Method to raise money - animal, products & valuable 0.156** (0.067) 0.222*** (0.070) -0.066 0.008 (0.149) -0.133 (0.158) 0.140
(Other method to raise money)           
Age of the household head -0.008** (0.003) 0.000 (0.001) -0.009** -0.006 (0.008) 0.000 (0.003) -0.007
Age of the household spouse -0.010*** (0.003) -0.001 (0.005) -0.009 -0.002 (0.007) -0.009 (0.009) 0.007
Age of the household child 0.021*** (0.007) 0.022*** (0.007) -0.001 0.020 (0.013) -0.017 (0.014) 0.038**
Gender of the household head 0.034 (0.118) 0.096 (0.119) -0.062 0.030 (0.324) -0.586 (0.357) 0.616
Gender of the household child -0.151* (0.084) -0.053 (0.140) -0.098 0.029 (0.207) -0.569 (0.351) 0.599
Level of education of the hh head1 0.048* (0.026) 0.035 (0.032) 0.013 0.148** (0.067) -0.065 (0.101) 0.213
Level of education of the hh spouse 0.051* (0.029) 0.061 (0.051) -0.010 0.188** (0.074) -0.098 (0.143) 0.286*
Level of education of the hh child -0.087 (0.064) 0.012 (0.084) -0.099 0.006 (0.126) 0.416** (0.172) -0.411*
Constant 7.251*** (0.285) 6.428*** (0.240) 0.824 6.033*** (0.673) 6.379*** (0.480) -0.346
Pseudo R2 0.1009 0.0660   0.0455 0.0345  
Number of observations 1871 1378   699 529  
  1. 1 Level of education is represented as a categorical variable where: (0) "Without education"; (1) "Primary education"; (2) " Secondary education"; (4) "University education"; (5) "Postgraduate education".
  2. Notes: *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1. Standard errors and reference categories are in brackets.