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Table 5 The amount of informal payments to medical staff in outpatient and inpatient health care services

From: Informal payments and intra-household allocation of resources for health care in Albania

  Outpatient Service Inpatient Service
  Nuclear household Extended household Difference (nuclear- extended) Nuclear household Extended household Difference (nuclear- extended)
Spouse of the household 0.278 (0.410) 0.362 (0.413) -0.084 1.953*** (0.688) -1.186* (0.711) 3.139***
Children of the household -0.214 (0.359) -0.110 (0.198) -0.104 -0.113 (0.620) -0.460 (0.507) 0.347
(Household head)           
Number of children into the household -0.066** (0.029) -0.045 (0.028) -0.021 -0.153*** (0.051) -0.188*** (0.061) 0.035
Sudden illness -0.230*** (0.077) -0.051 (0.069) -0.179 -0.090 (0.162) -0.415** (0.200) 0.326
Year of the survey (year 2002 = 0; year 2005 = 1) 0.117 (0.079) -0.005 (0.080) 0.122 0.119 (0.146) -0.058 (0.178) 0.177
Health insurance -0.170** (0.079) -0.226*** (0.076) 0.056 -0.277* (0.153) -0.161 (0.188) -0.116
ln income per capita -0.055 (0.034) -0.001 (0.032) -0.055 -0.014 (0.059) 0.088 (0.066) -0.102
Living in rural area 0.227*** (0.084) -0.005 (0.081) 0.231** -0.129 (0.155) 0.054 (0.195) -0.183
Method to raise money - borrowing money -0.112 (0.074) 0.071 (0.071) -0.184* -0.144 (0.136) -0.148 (0.167) 0.004
Method to raise money - animal, products & valuable -0.113 (0.094) 0.251*** (0.086) -0.365*** 0.141 (0.182) 0.103 (0.212) 0.038
(Other method to raise money)           
Age of the household head -0.007 (0.006) 0.005** (0.002) -0.011** 0.007 (0.010) -0.011*** (0.004) 0.017*
Age of the household spouse -0.008 (0.005) -0.007 (0.007) -0.001 -0.030*** (0.009) 0.001 (0.012) -0.031**
Age of the household child -0.001 (0.010) -0.010 (0.011) 0.008 0.037** (0.019) 0.017 (0.018) 0.020
Gender of the household head -0.312 (0.202) -0.037 (0.158) -0.276 0.427 (0.360) 0.409 (0.566) 0.019
Gender of the household child -0.136 (0.120) 0.213 (0.193) -0.349* 0.097 (0.252) 0.160 (0.496) -0.063
Level of education of the hh head1 0.099** (0.045) -0.107** (0.044) 0.205*** 0.132 (0.082) 0.253* (0.144) -0.121
Level of education of the hh spouse 0.044 (0.047) 0.164* (0.093) -0.120 0.077 (0.081) 0.569*** (0.163) -0.492***
Level of education of the hh child 0.183** (0.086) 0.269 (0.164) -0.086 0.246 (0.166) 0.203 (0.239) 0.043
Constant 6.371*** (0.461) 5.501*** (0.296) 0.870 5.979*** (0.765) 6.058*** (0.569) -0.079
R2 0.1092 0.1163   0.1170 0.1440  
Number of observations 521 361   438 316  
  1. 1 Level of education is represented as a categorical variable where: (0) "Without education"; (1) "Primary education"; (2) " Secondary education"; (4) "University education"; (5) "Postgraduate education"
  2. Notes: All series with 2002 prices. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1. Standard errors and reference categories are in brackets.