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Table 4 The Incidence of informal payments to medical staff in outpatient and inpatient health care services

From: Informal payments and intra-household allocation of resources for health care in Albania

  Outpatient Service Inpatient Service
  Nuclear household Extended household Difference (nuclear- extended) Nuclear household Extended household Difference (nuclear- extended)
Spouse of the household 0.309 (0.344) 1.150** (0.476) -0.841 0.568 (0.499) 0.449 (0.503) 0.120
Children of the household -0.589** (0.288) -0.329* (0.193) -0.261 0.168 (0.437) -0.402 (0.301) 0.570
(Household head)           
Number of children into the household -0.036 (0.026) -0.053* (0.032) 0.018 -0.019 (0.036) 0.041 (0.043) -0.060
Sudden illness 0.106 (0.068) 0.198*** (0.076) -0.092 -0.061 (0.112) -0.243* (0.125) 0.182
Year of the survey (year 2002 = 0; year 2005 = 1) -0.255*** (0.069) -0.222*** (0.081) -0.033 -0.231** (0.101) 0.024 (0.116) -0.255*
Health insurance -0.089 (0.073) -0.267*** (0.082) 0.178 -0.299*** (0.105) -0.270** (0.120) -0.029
ln income per capita -0.006 (0.032) -0.016 (0.036) 0.010 0.029 (0.045) 0.026 (0.046) 0.002
Living in rural area 0.174** (0.075) 0.060 (0.085) 0.115 0.002 (0.109) -0.059 (0.128) 0.061
Method to raise money - borrowing money 0.106 (0.065) 0.031 (0.076) 0.074 0.026 (0.096) -0.138 (0.108) 0.164
Method to raise money - animal, products & valuable 0.083 (0.090) 0.124 (0.098) -0.041 0.143 (0.132) -0.024 (0.137) 0.167
(Other method to raise money)           
Age of the household head -0.010** (0.005) -0.002 (0.002) -0.008* 0.001 (0.007) 0.006** (0.003) -0.005
Age of the household spouse -0.016*** (0.005) -0.017** (0.007) 0.001 -0.011* (0.006) -0.005 (0.008) -0.006
Age of the household child -0.004 (0.009) 0.011 (0.010) -0.015 -0.003 (0.011) 0.007 (0.012) -0.010
Gender of the household head -0.133 (0.169) 0.142 (0.168) -0.275 0.517* (0.285) -0.619* (0.318) 1.136***
Gender of the household child 0.090 (0.112) 0.268 (0.201) -0.179 0.142 (0.176) 0.497 (0.310) -0.355
Level of education of the hh head1 -0.025 (0.036) -0.024 (0.045) -0.001 0.079 (0.058) -0.123 (0.091) 0.203**
Level of education of the hh spouse -0.003 (0.041) -0.229** (0.091) 0.227** 0.100 (0.062) -0.041 (0.109) 0.141
Level of education of the hh child 0.201** (0.084) -0.160 (0.137) 0.360*** 0.079 (0.107) -0.006 (0.149) 0.086
Constant -0.055 (0.393) -0.319 (0.329) 0.263 -0.061 (0.567) 0.057 (0.398) -0.118
Log likelihood -1099.4186 -793.4290   -506.4827 -383.1305  
Pseudo R2 0.0396 0.0428   0.0301 0.0318  
Number of observations 1992 1504   765 575  
  1. 1 Level of education is represented as a categorical variable where: (0) "Without education"; (1) "Primary education"; (2) " Secondary education"; (4) "University education"; (5) "Postgraduate education"
  2. Notes: *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1. Standard errors and reference categories are in brackets.