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Table 4 Gender-specific annual mean expenditures within the case group adjusted for age

From: Excess costs of dementia disorders and the role of age and gender - an analysis of German health and long-term care insurance claims data

  Service component Male dementia patients (n = 2,328) Female dementia patients (n = 6,819) p-values
   Users (as a %) Cost per user (in €) Cost per patient (in €) Users (as a %) Cost per user (in €) Cost per patient (in €) Probability of service use Cost per user
Approach 1 one-step model Costs of formal care* 100.0 12,648 12,648 100.0 12,209 12,209 / 0.17
 Health insurance expenditures* 100.0 6,465 6,465 100.0 5,558 5,558 / 0.002
   Medication 99.4 1,394 1,394 99.5 1,277 1,277 / 0.12
    including anti-dementia drugs 18.8 782 127 14.0 770 115 0.12 0.70
   General practitioner 100.0 650 650 99.5 638 638 / 0.18
Approach 2 two-part- model  Medical specialist 88.2 675 595 79.1 447 363 <0.0001 <0.0001
   Hospital treatment 46.3 5,959 2,790 41.0 5,308 2,157 0.0005 0.01
   Non-physician services 28.3 839 225 26.5 677 190 0.25 0.03
   Medical aids 56.9 508 301 68.8 534 349 <0.0001 0.05
   Home health care 14.3 1,761 266 17.9 2,461 392 <0.0001 <0.0001
   Rehabilitation 5.2 3,307 170 4.6 3,459 164 0.81 0.21
 Long-term care services* 59.3 9,027 5,935 68.3 10,267 6,467 0.065 <0.0001
  1. Per user data derive from one-step and two-step Generalized Linear Models with gender as the coefficient of interest.
  2. Patient level data are means based on recycled predictions with gender as the coefficient of interest.
  3. Significance at the patient level is estimated based on p1 and p2 in the two-part models and based on p2 in the one-step models.
  4. p1 derives from the logistic model (approach 2, step 1) and p2 derives from the gamma model (approach 2, step 2 and approach 1).
  5. * Results of model estimation; the addition of mean costs per category yields slightly different figures.