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Table 3 Probability of service use and annual costs per user adjusted for age and gender

From: Excess costs of dementia disorders and the role of age and gender - an analysis of German health and long-term care insurance claims data

  Service component Dementia patients (n = 9,147) Non-demented control subjects (n = 29.741) p-values
   Users (as a %) Cost per user (in €) Users (as a %) Cost per user (in €) p 1 probability of service use p 2 cost per user
Approach 1 one-step model Costs of formal care* 100.0 12,343 96.5 4,034 / <0.0001
 Health insurance expenditures* 100.0 5,813 96.4 3,256 / <0.0001
   Medication 99.5 1,312 93.5 671 / <0.0001
   including anti-dementia drugs (two-step) 15.2 764 0.0 0   
   General practitioner 99.4 641 93.7 367 / <0.0001
Approach 2 two-part model  Medical specialist 81.4 517 81.0 524 0.0009 0.47
   Hospital treatment 42.5 5,504 28.2 4,697 <0.0001 <0.0001
   Non-physician services 27.0 720 21.6 390 <0.0001 <0.0001
   Medical aids 65.2 538 35.6 293 <0.0001 <0.0001
   Home health care 17.0 2,254 6.3 2,118 <0.0001 0.14
   Rehabilitation 4.8 3,416 4.8 3,135 0.9 0.0036
 Long-term care services 66.0 9,918 12.9 5,483 <0.0001 <0.0001
  1. Data derive from one-step and two-step Generalized Linear Models with dementia as the coefficient of interest.
  2. Significance at the patient level is estimated based on p1 and p2 in the two-part models and based on p2 in the one-step models.
  3. p1 derives from the logistic model (approach 2, step 1) and p2 derives from the gamma model (approach 2, step 2 and approach 1).
  4. * Results of model estimation; the addition of mean costs per category yields slightly different figures.