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Table 2 Annual per capita costs (€) and estimated excess costs (€) adjusted for age and gender

From: Excess costs of dementia disorders and the role of age and gender - an analysis of German health and long-term care insurance claims data

  Service component Cost per dementia patient (n = 9,147) Cost per non-demented control subject (n = 29,741) Excess expenditures**
Approach 1 one-step model Costs of formal care * [95%-CI] 12,343 [12,126; 12,572] 4,034 [3,957; 4,109] 8,309 [8,081; 8,552]
 Health insurance expenditures* 5,813 3,256 2,557
   Medication 1,312 671 641
    including anti-dementia drugs (two-step) 119 0 119
   General practitioner 641 367 274
Approach 2 two-step-model  Medical specialist 432 429 3
   Hospital treatment 2,237 1,325 912
   Non-physician services 199 83 116
   Medical aids 339 106 233
   Home health care 361 138 223
   Rehabilitation 164 150 14
 Long-term care services 6,353 797 5,556
  1. Data are means based on recycled predictions with dementia as the coefficient of interest.
  2. The 95% confidence interval is based on 1,000 nonparametric bootstrap replications.
  3. * Results of model estimation; the addition of mean costs per category yields slightly different figures.
  4. ** Defined as the difference of estimated means within both subgroups.