# Table 2 Annual per capita costs (€) and estimated excess costs (€) adjusted for age and gender

Service component Cost per dementia patient (n = 9,147) Cost per non-demented control subject (n = 29,741) Excess expenditures**
Approach 1 one-step model Costs of formal care * [95%-CI] 12,343 [12,126; 12,572] 4,034 [3,957; 4,109] 8,309 [8,081; 8,552]
Health insurance expenditures* 5,813 3,256 2,557
Medication 1,312 671 641
including anti-dementia drugs (two-step) 119 0 119
General practitioner 641 367 274
Approach 2 two-step-model  Medical specialist 432 429 3
Hospital treatment 2,237 1,325 912
Non-physician services 199 83 116
Medical aids 339 106 233
Home health care 361 138 223
Rehabilitation 164 150 14
Long-term care services 6,353 797 5,556
1. Data are means based on recycled predictions with dementia as the coefficient of interest.
2. The 95% confidence interval is based on 1,000 nonparametric bootstrap replications.
3. * Results of model estimation; the addition of mean costs per category yields slightly different figures.
4. ** Defined as the difference of estimated means within both subgroups.