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Table 2 Bivariate associations between maternal morbidity and potential risk factors

From: Male responsibility and maternal morbidity: a cross-sectional study in two Nigerian states

Variable Bauchi Cross River
  With problem with factor With problem without factor OR (95% CIca) With problem with factor With problem without factor OR (95% CIca)
Urban 22.5% 274/1219 18.1% 1155/6378 1.31 (1.00-1.72) 45.7% 1093/2393 43.9% 2097/4777 1.07 (0.90-1.28)
Any formal education 22.5% 374/1660 17.7% 1046/5903 1.35 (1.10-1.66) 44.8% 2971/6637 41.5% 290/496 1.14 (0.94-1.39)
Married 18.7% 1382/7393 22.6% 44/195 0.79 (0.57-1.09) 44.2% 2608/5896 45.6% 577/1264 0.94 (0.82-1.09)
Food security in last week 18.2% 1239/6824 24.8% 186/749 0.67 (0.55-0.81) 42.9% 2502/5835 51.6% 682/1321 0.70 (0.63-0.78)
Remunerated employment 20.7% 753/3629 17.1% 668/3909 1.27 (1.08-1.50) 45.9% 1931/4207 42.5% 1254/2954 1.15 (1.02-1.30)
Low risk age for pregnancy (18-35 yrs) 18.7% 1186/6356 19.7% 242/1226 0.93 (0.79-1.10) 45.1% 2832/6274 40.0% 356/890 1.23 (1.06-1.43)
Times pregnant (1-3 pregnancies) 16.5% 605/3658 20.9% 798/3827 0.75 (0.65-0.87) 44.4% 1945/4385 44.7% 1233/2761 0.99 (0.90-1.08)
Female headed household 25.4% 15/59 18.8% 1251/6672 1.48 (0.73-3.00) 50.6% 159/314 48% 1479/3079 1.16 (0.94-1.42)
Non-crowded households (2/room or less) 19.9% 487/2451 18.4% 870/4719 1.10 (0.94-1.28) 46.7% 652/1395 49.1% 1229/2501 0.86 (0.76-0.97)
Know any danger in pregnancy 20.1% 817/4065 17.3% 596/3441 1.20 (1.06-1.36) 44.5% 2035/4577 44.6% 1151/2583 1.00 (0.90-1.10)
Know danger signs in childbirth 20.2% 817/4042 17.2% 592/3445 1.22 (1.07-1.39) 47.2% 1600/3389 42.0% 1583/3765 1.23 (1.10-1.38)
Believe women should give up heavy work in pregnancy 17.4% 511/2938 19.7% 914/4646 0.86 (0.75-0.98) 44.7% 1217/2720 44.3% 2476/4448 1.02 (0.91-1.14)
Believe it's not okay for pregnant women to smoke cigarettes 18.2% 1100/6046 21.2% 326/1536 0.83 (0.70-0.98) 45.8% 3467/6393 34.1% 261/765 1.63 (1.36-1.95)
Believe women without birth problems still need to deliver at a health facility 19.2% 526/2742 18.6% 899/4843 1.04 (0.89-1.21) 45.2% 2305/5105 42.8% 879/2052 1.10 (0.99-1.22)
Intention: If pregnant next year, would give up heavy work 18.4% 515/2800 19.4% 849/4381 0.94 (0.83-1.06) 45.2% 1573/3477 43.8% 1614/3681 1.06 (0.94-1.19)
Intention: If pregnant next year, would not smoke cigarettes 18.6% 1387/7443 26.3% 35/133 0.64 (0.38-1.07) 44.5% 3170/7120 33.3% (26/39) 1.61 (0.77-3.33)
Involved in decisions regarding pregnancy/childbirth 45.0% 18/40 18.7% 1404/7514 3.56 (1.98-6.39) 46.9% 849/1811 43.7% 2335/5340 1.14 (1.00-1.28)
Spoke about pregnancy primarily with husband 20.1% 802/3956 17.3% 546/3156 1.20 (1.06-1.37) 42.8% 1006/2349 45.4% 2115/4654 0.90 (0.80-1.01)
Say they were not ever beaten 18.4% 1332/7236 28.2% 89/316 0.58 (0.41-0.81) 42.4% 2414/5695 53.1% 745/1403 0.65 (0.58-0.73)
Say they were not beaten in pregnancy 18.9% 1357/7183 24.6% 46/187 0.71 (0.48-1.07) 43.3% 2732/6307 53.8% 415/772 0.66 (0.56-0.77)
Say they were not afraid of their husbands 18.6% 933/5018 19.1% 486/2538 0.96 (0.81-1.15) 43.0% 2062/4795 47.6% 1096/2304 0.83 (0.73-0.94)
Reduced workload before third trimester 22.5% 318/1416 18.0% 1084/6023 1.32 (1.10-1.58) 42.7% 1424/3334 45.9% 1444/3149 0.88 (0.79-0.98)
Had four or more antenatal check-ups 22.0% 650/2952 16.9% 726/4300 1.39 (1.19-1.62) 44.1% 1418/3218 45.4% 1628/3582 0.95 (0.84-1.06)
Took iron-folate at least one trimester 20.8% 496/2385 17.5% 850/4847 1.23 (1.06-1.44) 44.8% 1300/2904 44.8% 1155/3470 1.00 (0.90-1.11)
Urine checked at antenatal clinic 21.4% 619/2891 17.5% 758/4324 1.28 (1.07-1.54) 43.0% 1890/4400 47.1% 1271/2700 0.85 (0.74-0.96)
Blood pressure checked at antenatal clinic 20.8% 892/4294 16.6% 492/2965 1.32 (1.09-1.60) 43.4% 2256/5204 47.6% 898/1885 0.84 (0.72-0.98)
Qualified person at delivery at health facility 28.0% 321/1147 16.8% 1046/6211 1.92 (1.59-2.31) 41.8% 1322/3162 46.8% 1816/3882 0.82 (0.72-0.93)
Did not experience female circumcision 18.5% 1121/6074 23.8% 176/741 0.73 (0.58-0.90) 42.6% 1851/4346 47.6% 1323/2779 0.82 (0.73-0.91)