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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: Agreement between aggregate and individual-level measures of income and education: a comparison across three patient groups

  Asthma
n = 359
Rheumatoid Arthritis
n = 276
Diabetes
n = 281
p-value*
Characteristic Mean (sd†) or n (%) Mean (sd) or n (%) Mean (sd) or n (%)  
Age (years) 36.8 (8.4) 61.2 (13.8)a 56.9 (13.1) <0.0001
Sex (males) 128 (35.7) 58 (21.2)b 147 (52.3) <0.0001
Self-reported Income     
<20,000 90 (29.8) 44 (19.5) 34 (14.6)  
20,000-50,000 84 (27.8) 99 (43.8) 76 (32.6)  
>50,000 128 (42.4) 83 (36.7) 123 (52.8) <0.0001
DA‡-Household Income     
<20,000 24 (6.7) 8 (3.0) 7 (2.5)  
20,000-50,000 180 (50.4) 128 (47.8) 112 (40.1)  
>50,000 153 (42.9) 132 (49.3) 160 (57.4) 0.001
CT§- Household Income     
<20,000 10 (2.8) 0 4 (1.5)  
20,000-50,000 192 (53.8) 76 (38.0) 86 (32.2)  
>50,000 155 (43.4) 124 (62.0) 177 (66.3) <0.0001
Individual-level University degree 124 (34.5) 45 (17.3)c 82 (29.8)d <0.0001
Aggregate-level University Degree (expected)-DA 91 (25.3) 50 (18.1) 71 (25.2) 0.06
Aggregate-level University Degree (expected)- CT 93 (25.9) 59 (21.3) 74 (26.4) 0.39
  1. a2 missing; b16 missing; c6 missing; d6 missing;*all p-values were obtained using Chi-square test except for age where ANOVA was used. †Standard deviation; ‡ Dissemination Area; § Census Tract