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Table 1 Comparison of means for two outcome composite scores across hospital and respondent characteristics (identical letters represent significance between indicated groups)

From: Predictors and outcomes of patient safety culture in hospitals

  Frequency of Events Reported Overall Perception of Safety
  Mean (SD)   P-Value Mean (SD)   P-Value
Unit       
   Many different hospital units/no specific unit 3.89 (0.96) a, f <0.001 3.72 (0.66) a, d, e, f <0.001
   Administration 3.78 (1.16) b, f   3.72 (0.75) b, e,  
   Medical 3.93 (0.99) c, d   3.83 (0.68) a, c, e  
   Surgical 3.78 (1.05) c, d, e, f   3.82 (0.67) a, d, e,  
   Diagnostics 3.97 (1.01) b, d, e   3.96 (0.68) a, b, c, e  
   Other 4.06 (0.98) a, b, d, f   3.91 (0.64) a, b, f  
   N 5707    5201   
Position       
   Nurse 3.89 (1.00) a, e, f <0.001 3.80 (0.66) a, c <0.001
   Physician 3.78 (0.92) b, f   3.69 (0.75) b, c, d  
   Pharmacist 3.87 (1.20)    3.83 (0.90)   
   Other health professions 3.95 (0.93) c, e,   3.90 (0.77)   
   Unit assistant/clerk/secretary/Technician 3.92 (1.05) d, e,   3.92 (0.68) a, b  
   Administration 3.92 (1.06)    3.75 (0.85)   
   Quality and Safety 3.49 (1.06) a, c, d, e   3.86 (0.63)   
   Other 4.04 (0.99) a, b, e, f   3.90 (0.71) b, d  
   N 5925    5407   
Experience at hospital       
   Less than 1 year 3.78 (1.08) a, b, c, d 0.001 3.81 (0.72)   0.003
   1 to 5 years 3.88 (1.00)    3.82 (0.67)   
   6 to 10 years 3.94 (1.00) a, b   3.83 (0.67)   
   11 to 15 years 3.98 (0.98) a, c   3.88 (0.65) a  
   16 to 20 years 3.91 (1.04)    3.82 (0.69)   
   21 years or more 4.00 (1.02) a, d   3.74 (0.79) a  
   N 6132    5573   
Hospital Size (El-Jardali et al., 2010)       
   Small (<100 beds) 3.95 (1.00) a, b, c 0.001 3.84 (0.67) a 0.012
   Medium (100-199 beds) 3.87 (1.03) a, b   3.80 (0.69)   
   Large (>=200 beds) 3.81 (1.08) a, c   3.76 (0.71) a  
   N 6307    5742   
Interaction with patients       
   Yes 3.90 (1.00)   0.517 3.82 (0.68)   0.092
   No 3.93 (1.05)    3.87 (0.73)   
   N 5707    5201   
Accreditation Status (El-Jardali et al., 2010)       
   Yes 3.91 (1.03)   0.047 3.84 (0.69)   <0.001
   No 3.84 (1.03)    3.71 (0.68)   
   N 6307    5742