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Table 4 Two-level analyses (N = 40 wards and 21 nursing homes)

From: Leadership, staffing and quality of care in nursing homes

  Quality of care - relatives Quality of care - staff Quality of care - field observations
  Coeff. p-value Coeff. p-value Coeff. p-value
Leadership style       
   Task-oriented leadership style 0.36 = 0.02 0.63 > 0.01 0.28 = 0.12
   Relationship-oriented leadership style 0.12 = 0.19 0.01 = 0.91 0.10 = 0.37
Staffing       
   Total staffing levels (FTE) -0.95 = 0.31 0.10 = 0.90 1.17 = 0.30
   Ratio of registered nurses 0.32 = 0.66 0.52 = 0.42 0.20 = 0.83
   Ratio of unlicensed staff -2.05 > 0.01 -0.80 = 0.22 -2.59 > 0.01
Care level -0.20 > 0.01 -0.11 > 0.01 -0.11 = 0.02
R1 2 (ward level) 0.64   0.64   0.53