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Table 3 Professionals' knowledge, practice, and attitudes at baseline and follow-up for intervention and control group.

From: Effect of an institutional development plan for user participation on professionals' knowledge, practice, and attitudes. A controlled study

  Intervention Control
Knowledge Baseline
N = 891
Follow-up
N = 931
p-value Baseline
N = 1331
Follow-up
N = 1231
p-value
1. Does your unit have a complaints procedure for users? (% yes) 47.7% 51.6% 0.601 66.7% 74.0% 0.202
5. Have you heard or read anything about consumer involvement and participation in the provision of mental health services? (% yes) 91.0% 91.3% 0.945 88.6% 95.0% 0.065*
8a. Does your unit solicit input from users for the planning of mental health services? (% yes) 69.7% 64.5% 0.460 74.2% 71.3% 0.600
8b. # Does your unit solicit input from user organisation for the planning of mental health services? (% yes) 47.2% 52.2% 0.503 36.4% 52.5% 0.010**
9. Does your unit routinely conduct user satisfaction service on the service it offers? (% yes) 34.1% 34.4% 0.964 37.9% 44.3% 0.301
10. Are users involved in the hiring decisions of your unit's staff? (% yes) 0% 0% 1.00 0% 2.5% 0.070*
11. Are users invited to participate in staff training meetings at your agency? (% yes) 3.4% 21.7% 0.000** 6.8% 15.6% 0.026**
12. Has your unit ever asked users to act as teachers at staff training events? (% yes) 7.9% 15.1% 0.129 16.8% 26.2% 0.067*
13. Does your unit sponsor events/forums that educate users about their rights and entitlements? (% yes) 37.1% 44.1% 0.336 61.1% 59.0% 0.739
21. # Does the unit have a users' committee? (% yes) 28.1% 39.1% 0.116 56.5% 54.5% 0.746
22. # Does the unit have representatives or spokespersons on behalf of the users? (% yes) 22.5% 31.5% 0.171 51.9% 53.3% 0.827
Practice       
3. Are users told they have a right to see and/or correct their records? (% yes) 58.4% 71.1% 0.076* 58.3% 62.3% 0.519
4. Are users informed about the facts about confidentiality and privacy regarding information contained in those records? (% yes) 79.8% 81.5% 0.766 84.8% 89.4% 0.276
7. Do you tell users what goals are intended to be accomplished by the treatment? (% yes) 81.2% 89.8% 0.108 89.1% 95.9% 0.041**
25. # Do you have enough time to ensure users' participation? (Yes) 59.3% 60.9% 0.826 67.8% 69.1% 0.827
26. # In your opinion, are next of kin in general sufficiently involved? (% yes) 30.1% 28.6% 0.826 25.2% 33.9% 0.137
27. # How would you describe the collaboration with next of kin in general?(% very good/quite good) 44.6% 49.5% 0.520 42.3% 46.7% 0.481
28. # Do you inform users about relevant self-help groups and user organisations? (% yes) 85.4% 77.9% 0.213 78.4% 82.6% 0.412
Attitudes       
6. In most cases, where does the responsibility for deciding the goals of treatment usually lie?
(% entirely/mostly the user)
6.8% 12.9% 0.172 12.0% 7.3% 0.204
14. Should users be involved in the evaluation of their presenting problems? (% always/usually) 87.5% 95.6% 0.050** 90.0% 94.3% 0.211
14a. Should users be involved in the diagnosis of their presenting problems? (% always/usually) 80.9% 84.8% 0.488 66.4% 72.4% 0.305
15. In your opinion, should users contribute to the writing of their notes and records? (% yes) 43.7% 41.6% 0.778 42.5% 38.0% 0.470
16. In your opinion, should users be involved in the planning of their own treatment? (% yes) 97.7% 98.9% 0.528 97.0% 100% 0.052*
17. How would mental health service change if users were employed by that service? (% improve) 71.6% 65.5% 0.396 56.2% 63.7% 0.241
19. How would mental health service change if users were involved in the planning and/or delivery of those services? (% improve) 90.7% 84.6% 0.220 81.7% 83.9% 0.656
23. # How would you describe the unit's general attitude towards user participation? (% quite good/very good) 32.2% 42.4% 0.158 61.8% 64.5% 0.665
24. # In your opinion, do users understand the information you give about their illnesses and treatment opportunities? (% yes) 98.8% 95.1% 0.182 95.9% 96.6% 0.783
18. In your opinion, what are the most important reasons when users of mental health care don't want to be involved?       
- Too vulnerable (% yes) 36.0% 37.6% 0.814 42.9% 39.8% 0.624
- Lacking in self-confidence (% yes) 59.6% 39.8% 0.008** 60.2% 52.0% 0.191
- Lacking in ability or knowledge (% yes) 12.4% 9.7% 0.563 14.3% 17.9% 0.433
- Lacking in motivation (% yes) 51.7% 38.7% 0.079* 42.1% 43.9% 0.772
- Lack of trust in the ability of the services to provide help (% yes) 38.2% 28.0% 0.142 24.8% 25.2% 0.942
- Not wanting to have any further contact after getting better (% yes) 44.9% 40.9% 0.578 37.6% 39.0% 0.814
- Other reasons (% yes) 16.9% 7.5% 0.054* 18.0% 17.1% 0.838
20. In your opinion, if users were involved in planning and/or carrying out the mental health service, how would the service develop?       
- Upgrading of services and delivery (% yes) 73.0% 65.6% 0.277 56.4% 59.3% 0.632
- Less burnout and stress for providers of those services (% yes) 11.2% 12.9% 0.730 9.0% 10.6% 0.677
- More chance that users would benefit from those services the first time round (% yes) 86.5% 75.3% 0.054* 71.4% 71.5% 0.984
- Less chance of the "revolving door" syndrome, where users keep returning with the hope of finding help (% yes) 27.0% 30.1% 0.639 27.1% 22.0% 0.342
- Downgrading of services and delivery (% yes) 1.1% 4.3% 0.190 5.3% 4.9% 0.888
- More burnout and stress for the providers of those services (% yes) 3.4% 7.5% 0.219 6.8% 6.5% 0.933
- That users would only be regarded as tokens by the professionals (% yes) 9.0% 10.8% 0.690 7.5% 6.5% 0.751
- That users would not understand the language used, and therefore find it difficult to give any input (% yes) 3.4% 4.3% 0.744 8.3% 9.8% 0.678
- Other developments (% yes) 7.9% 7.5% 0.932 9.0% 5.7% 0.310
  1. Proportions and test of difference within each group. Numbers are percentages of total N for each sample.
  2. 1 N is the no of participants who returned completed questionnaires. The N in the four samples varied for each question due to missing answers on the variables (0%-11%).
  3. # Questions marked # were added to the Consumer Participation Questionnaire (CPQ) in this study.
  4. * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05,
  5. p-value calculated using Pearson's chi square test.